American Cinema ( )


American Cinema ( )

Minicap Educational Establishment

Secondary School N0 1 with

Thorough Learning of Foreign Languages

Central District, Chelyabinsk

Report

''American Cinema''

Made by Bragina Kate

Class 10-4

Foreign Language Department

2001-2002

The contents

Introduction. 2

American Cinema 3

The earliest history of film. 4

The earliest movie theatres. 4

The growth of the film industry. 5

Popcorn 7

The Oscar. 7

Hollywood. 7

Beverly Hills. 9

The major film genres. 9

Film Companies 10

Film Directors and Producers 10

Films. 12

Actors and Actresses. 12

Marilyn Monroe. 16

Walt Disney 18

Titanic. 19

Literature. 20

Vocabularly. 21

Introduction.

Im a cinema goer. And also I like watching films on TV or video.

But I think, that watching a good film is the best relaxation. It is

thought-provoking and entertaining. Now a growing number of people prefer

watching films on TV to attending cinemas. There are wonderful comedies,

love stories, science fiction, horror films, detective stories, and

historical films on. Theres a variety of films available today. It is

difficult to live without cinema. One fact is clear for everyone: cinema

makes our life better. Cinema helps us to forget different problems. When

people watch films, they have a rest. Some films take people into another

world. I think it is a pure world, where usual problems do not even exist.

Cinema is a great power, it helps us to understand our complex well. Cinema

can leave nobody indifferent. It is so powerful that it provokes complex

feelings. We meet a lot of people. Everyone has his own opinion about

something and like most of us I have my own opinion too, for example, about

cinema. Cinema is a necessary and important part of my life. It is my

essence, my mode of life and my happiness. Cinema helps me to cope with

difficulties and with incorrigible problems. So thats why I have chosen

the topic Cinema.

American Cinema

The world of American cinema is so far-reaching a topic that it

deserves, and often receives, volumes of its own. Hollywood (in Los

Angeles, California), of course, immediately comes to mind, as do the many

great directors, actors and actresses it continues to attract and produce.

But then, one also thinks of the many independent studios throughout the

country, the educational and documentary series and films, the socially-

relevant tradition in cinema, and the film departments of universities,

such as the University of Southern California (USC), the University of

California at Los Angeles (UCLA) or New York University.

For over 50 years, American films have continued to grow in popularity

throughout the world. Television has only increased this popularity.

The great blockbusters of film entertainment that stretch from "Gone

with the Wind" to "Star Wars" receive the most attention. A look at the

prizes awarded at the leading international film festivals will also

demonstrate that as an art form, the American film continues to enjoy-

considerable prestige. Even when the theme is serious or, as they say,

"meaningful", American films remain "popular". In the past decade, films

which treated the danger of nuclear power and weapons, alcoholism, divorce,

inner-city blight, .the effects of slavery, the plight of Native Americans,

poverty and immigration have all received awards and international

recognition. And, at the same time, they have done well at the box-office.

Movies (films), including those on video-cassettes, remain the most

popular art form in the USA. A book with 20,000 readers is considered to be

a best-seller. A hit play may be seen by a few thousand theatergoers. By

contrast, about a billion movie tickets are sold at movie houses across the

USA every year.

There are three main varieties of movie theaters in the USA: 1) the

"first-run" movie houses, which show new films; 2) "art theaters", which

specialize in showing foreign films and revivals; 3) "neighborhood

theaters", which run films sometimes two at a time after the "first-

run" houses.

New York is a movie theater capital of the country. Many of the city's

famous large movie theaters, once giving Times Square so much of its

glitter, have been torn down or converted (in some cases into smaller

theaters), and a new generation of modem theaters has appeared to the north

and east of the area. Most of them offer continuous performances from

around noon till midnight. Less crowded and less expensive are the so-

called "neighborhood theaters", which show films several weeks or months

after the "first-run" theaters. There are several theaters that specialize

in revivals of famous old films and others that show only modernist, avant-

garde films. Still others, especially those along 42nd Street, between the

Avenue of Americas and Eighth Avenue, run movies about sex and violence.

Foreign films, especially those of British, French, Italian and Swedish

origin, are often seen in New York, and several movie theaters specialize

in the showing of foreign-language films for the various ethnic groups in

the city.

The earliest history of film.

The illusion of movement was first noted in the early 19th century. In

1824 the English physician Peter Mark Roget published an article the

persistence of vision with regard to moving objects. Many inventors put

his theory to the test with pictures posted on coins that were flipped by

the thumb, and with rotating disks of drawings. A particular favorite was

the zoetrope, slotted revolving drum through which could be seen clowns and

animals that seemed to leap. They were hand drawn on strips of paper fitted

inside the drum. Other similar devices were the hemitrope, the phasmatrope,

the phenakistoscope, and the praxinoscope. It is not possible to give any

one person credit for having invented the motion picture. In the 1880s the

Frenchman Etienne Jules Marey developed the rotating shutter with a slot to

admit light, and George Eastman, of New York, developed flexible film. In

1888 Thomas Edison, of New Jersey, his phonograph for recording and playing

sound on wax cylinders. He tried to combine sound with motion pictures.

Edisons assistant, William Dickson, worked on the idea, and in 1889, he

both appeared and spoke in a film. Edison did not turn his attention to the

projected motion picture at first. The results were still not good enough,

and Edison did not think that films would not have large appeal. Instead he

produced and patented the kinetoscope, which ran a continuous loop of film

about 15 meters (50 feet) long. Only one person could view it at a time. By

1894, hand-cranked kinetoscope appeared all over the United States and

Europe. Edison demonstrated a projecting kinetoscope. The cinematograph

based on Edisons kinetoscope was invented by two Frenchmen, Louis and

Auguste Lumiere. This machine consisted of a portable camera and a

projector. In December 1895, The Lumiere brothers organized a program of

short motion pictures at a Parisian cafe.

The earliest movie theatres.

Films were first thought of as experiment or toys. They were shown in

scientific laboratories and in the drawing rooms of private home. When

their commercial potential was realized they began to be screened in public

to a paying audience. The first films to be shown publicly were short,

filmed news items and travelogues. These were screened alongside live

variety acts form theatre shows, called vaudeville in United States. Within

a few years fairground tents that slowed nothing but programs of films were

common sights. In United States stores were converted onto movie theatre,

which were known as storefront theatre. People would pay a nickel to see

about an hours worth of film, so the theatre came to be known as

nickelodeons. Early film audiences needed patience. There were many

technical problems. Projectors were likely to breath down and every

projectionist kept slides to reassure the audience: The performance will

resume shortly. Many projectors caused flickering on the screen, earning

films the nickname of the flicks.

The growth of the film industry.

From the start the film industry was eager to make and show films that

people would want to see. The most popular films were those that told

stories- narrative fiction films. Film making began to realize that by

using different camera angels, locations, lighting and special effects,

film could tell a story in the way that live theatre couldnt.

The great Train Robbery, made in 1903 by Edwin S. Porter, was the first

American narrative fiction film. It included the basic ingredients of the

Western: a hold-up, a chase, and a gunfight. It used a great variety of

shots by showing the action at different distances from the camera- long

shots of action in the distance, but also medium shots of the actors shown

full-length, and chase-ups of the face and shoulders of a gunman shooting

directly at the audience.

Before World War I American film industry had logged behind the film

industries of Europe particularly those of France and Italy. But during the

war, film making almost stopped in Europe, partly because a chemical used

in celluloid was needed for making gunpowder. The American film industry

thrived during the war because there was money for making films; and also

because of popular the genius of D. W. Griffith. In 1915 Griffith made The

Birth Of Nation, a film about the American Civil War and in 1916 he made

Intolerance. These three hours films were Americans answer to the

spectacular Italian films such as Quo Vadis that had earlier astonished the

world. For Intolerance Griffith had built a set of an ancient Babylonian

city, which was over a mile long, and he photograph it from a balloon.

Griffith was a genius, not just because he could show huge and thrilling

scenes on the screen, but because he was aware of the artistic

possibilities of film.

The actors in the old-sealers had mostly been unknown and their

performances very poor. Because the films were silent, actors made up for

lack of speech by frantic and unnatural gestures and movements. A new and

better style of acting was adopted by a young American actress called Marry

Pickford who showed that a simple natural style was more effective on the

screen than dramatic arm-waving and chest-thumping. Her fame spread across

the Atlantic. In 1918, she signed a contract for more than a million

dollars. The stars system was born.

About the same time, some of the slapstick comedians developed unique

comedy styles, and also became world-famous stars. Charlie Chaplin, the

little man with the derby hat, cane, and boggy pants, became the most

famous (he, too, sealed a million-dollar contract). But others such as

Buster Heaton, Harold Lloyd, and Harry Langdon were also widely acclaimed.

They were great artists whose work is still popular today. By 1920 the

cinema had became the most popular form of leisure activity outside the

home.

Film studios such as Metro-Goldwin Meyer, Paramount, Warners, 20th

Century Fox, and United Artists developed a system for producing films on

the same principle that Henry Ford used for his cars- the assembly like

Hollywood, on the west coast of the United States, became the center of the

film industry. Its climate, light and physical surroundings were suited to

the film industry, which shot much material out of doors. Film making

thrived. In succeeding years, many great films were made in Hollywood,

beginning with the silent films, followed, in the mid-twenties, by the

first sound pictures.

The first animated cartoon drawn in the United States especially for

film was done in 1906 by J. Stuart Blackton. The first full-length animated

feature film was Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs made in 1937.

The stars of the films being produced in Hollywood became known

throughout the world. Among them were famous Cagney, Clark Gable, Marlene

Dietrich, who had first appeared in films in Germany, the Swedish Greta

Garbo and the young Shirley Temple. Some of the most famous stars were

Mickey Mouse and characters from Walt Disneys cartoon. Leading film makers

included John Ford, Howard Hawks, Frank Capra and George Cukor.

During World War II some of the best Americans directors in the US

were recruited by the War Department, because films were needed to help

raise the morale of servicemen. Among the best films of this war period

were Frank Capras ''Why We Fight'' series (1942-45). Walt Disneys

animated films; and documentaries about important battlers directed by

Garson Kanin, John Huston, Billy Wilder. Orson Welless masterpiece

''Citizen Kane'' (1940) was the story of a newspaper tycoon. After the war

high-quality films continued to pour out of the United States. They

included Charlie Chaplins ''Limelight'' (1952), the fine Western Shane

(1956), a drama of the New York docks called On The Waterfront (1954) and

many high-spirited musicals of which An American In Paris (1951) was

outstanding. Alfred Hitchcock made his best films during this period.

''Psycho'' with its famous murder-in-the-shower scene was probably the most

successful. Despite these successes the great studios began to get into

financial difficulties because of declining audiences.

However, the late 1960s saw a turning point in the American film

industry with the release of a number of films appealing to the youth

market, which drew enormous audiences. The most famous of these were Arthur

Penns ''Bonnie and Clyde'' (1967) and Dennis Hoppers ''Easy Rider''

(1969). Realising that they could no longer rely on their traditional

family audiences, film makers increasingly concentrated on films for the so-

called teenage market, science fiction and fantasy blockbusters with

computer enhanced special effects Dolby sound such as George Lucass ''Star

Wars'' (1977) and Steven Spielbergs ''Raiders Of The Lost Ark'' (1981)

became very popular.

Popcorn

Today Americans still continue the custom of eating popcorn at the

movies. Americans use 500,000 pounds of popcorn every year. All corn does

not pop. A seed or kernel of corn must have 14 percent water in it to pop.

Other kinds of pop have less water and do not pop. When you put a kernel of

corn on a fire, the water inside makes the corn explode. This makes a pop

noise. That is why we called it popcorn. The American Indians popped corn a

long time ago. The Indians knew there were three kinds of corn. There was

sweet corn for eating, corn for animals, and corn for popping. The Indians

introduced corn to the first settlers, or Pilgrims, when they come to

America in 1620. One year after they came, the Pilgrims had a Thanksgiving

dinner. They invited the Indians. The Indians brought food with them. One

Indian brought popcorn. Since that time Americans continued to pop corn at

home. But in 1945 there was a new machine that changed the history of

popcorn. This electric machine popped corn outside the home. Soon movie

theatres started to sell popcorn to make more money. Popcorn at the movies

became more and more popular. Many people like to put salt and melted

butter on their popcorn. Some people eat it without salt or butter. Either

way - Americans love their popcorn!

The Oscar.

The Oscars are awarded every year by the American Academy of Motion

Picture Arts and Science. These statuettes are awarded to actors, film

directors, screenwriters and so on for outstanding contributions to the

film industry. The Oscars were first awarded in 1927. The first winners

were chosen by five judges. Nowadays all of the members of the Academy

vote. The ceremony is attended by most Hollywood stars, although some

famous stars, such as Woody Allen, refuse to go, even if they win an award.

The oldest winner of an Oscar was 80-year- old Jessica Tandy for her

performance in the film Driving Miss Daisy in 1990. The youngest was

Shirley Temple when she was only five years old. The statuette is of

soldier standing on a reel of film. Nobody is really sure why it is called

an Oscar, although some people say that it is because when the first

statuette was made, a secretary said, It reminds me of Uncle Oscar!

Hollywood.

When people think about of Hollywood, they probably think of film stars

like Marilyn Monroe, Gary Grant and James Dean. Hollywood is the center of

the international movie industry and American movies are distributed all

over the world. They are made in English but often dubbed into other

languages. In some countries 90 percent of the movies that people see are

US production. Sometimes, a film is not very popular with Americans, but

people in other countries like it. The first films were made in Hollywood

in 1911. Between 1930-1945, the five largest Hollywoods studios produced

most of the movies and owned most of the movie theatres in the United

States. Making films is expensive. On the average, it costs 36 million

dollars to produce a movie. Some of this goes to pay the salary of well-

known movie stars and large sums can be spent on special effects like

computer-generated imagery (CGI). Marketing the movie to the public may

cost another 17 million dollars or more. To cover these costs film

companies receive money for movie theatre tickets and the sale or rental of

videos. They also sell CDs of the soundtrack and toys, books, or clothes

associated with the movie. Indeed, there was a time when Hollywood was the

most famous place in the USA, if not the world.

The Hollywood story begins at the end of the last century.

1887. A man called Harvey Wilcox bought a large ranch in a district

north-west of Los Angeles in California. His wife called the land

Hollywood.

1902-04. The first cinemas (nickelodeons) opened in the USA.

1911. Two brothers from New Jersey built Hollywoods first film studio.

1912. Film-makers from the east coast of the USA came to California,

first in small number and then in thousands.

1912. The Hollywood industry was born.

There were several reasons why film makers went to Hollywood. Firstly,

there was a lot of space, secondly, Californias warm sunny weather was

ideal for making films outside. Thirdly, there was a variety of locations

for filming: ocean, mountains, deserts, villages, woodland and rivers.

By 1939 the great dream factory studios made nearly 500 movies a year,

drew American audience of 50 million a week and earned over 700 million

dollars at the box office-all with the help of 30,000 employees who dealt

with everything from processing film to fan mail.

In the 1950s and 60s Hollywood became more international. Famous stars

like Maurice Chevalier from France, Marlene Dietrich from Germany and Sofia

Loren from Italy came to Hollywood. Even today many international stars

like Gerard Depardier and Arnold Schwarzeneger make films in Hollywood.

A big film studio, like MGM or Warner Brothers, brought to life a lot

of film stars. They could make or break a star.

The Hollywood film studio produced different types. There were the

silent Charlie Chaplin comedies of the 20s, gangster films, Frankenstein

horror films and Greta Garbo romantic melodramas of the 30s, the musicals

of the 40s and 50s, the westerns (cowboy films) of the 50s, the historical

epics of the 60s, the science fiction films of the 70s and the Steven

Spielberg action films and violent horror films of the 80s. Who knows what

the next century will be famous for?

Beverly Hills.

Most visitors to Los Angeles, California want to go and see Beverly

Hills. This is where you find the homes of the movie stars. But Beverly

Hills isnt Los Angeles. Its a small city next to Los Angeles. All kinds

of celebrities live in Beverly Hills. These celebrities may be movie stars,

television stars, sport stars, or other people in the news. Tourists can

buy special maps for the homes of the stars. These homes are very

beautiful. They usually have swimming pools and tennis courts. But

sometimes you cannot see very much. The homes have high walls or trees

around them. Beverly Hills is also famous for Rodeo Drive. This is one of

the most expensive shopping streets in the United States. Rodeo Drive

started to be an elegant street in the 1960s. Many famous stores are opened

on the street. People liked all the new styles and fashions they could buy.

Today you can find the most expensive and unusual clothing, jewelry and

furniture in the world on Rodeo Drive. Rodeo Drive is a very special

street. When you want to park your car in public parking, an attendant will

come and park your car for you. Beverly Hills is really a small city. Only

About 35,000 people live there. But during the day more than 200,000 people

come to Beverly Hills to work or to shop!

The major film genres.

The major film genres developed in the United States are the following:

Comedy. Charles Spencer Chaplin became the most widely recognized

comedy figure in the world. He emphasized the development of character and

plot structure, in contrast to the simple reliance on gags and gimmicks

that characterized the work of other comedy producers of the day.

Westerns. The Western (a film about life in the American West in the

past) was the first American genre to be developed and has remained a

staple of the American motion-picture art and industry. It has been

estimated that one quarter of US films have been Westerns. However, today

most American Westerns are made in Italy and are called '"spaghetti

Westerns".

Musicals. The musicals of the late 1920s and the early 1930s consisted

of a series of "numbers" by established stars of Broad-way, vaudeville and

radio. Later manifestations of the form were the biographical musicals,

often highly fictionalized, about great composers, musicians, singers,

providing an opportunity to string together some of their most popular

hits. The transferring of musicals intact from the Broad-way stage became

almost automatic beginning in the 1950s.

Gangster films. While the Western deals with a mythical American past

and the musical with a fantasy land, the gangster film is closely tied to a

real facet of American life. In earlier films, the gangster had risen to

the top to enjoy wealth, power, beautiful women, expensive homes and large

cars, but before the end of the film he was bound to be caught by law-

enforcement officers, overthrown by fellow gang members or killed. Such

punishment was considered obligatory. By 1971, however, "The Godfather"

showed how far the genre has evolved: Marion Brando, in the title role,

dies of old age. The gangster was another businessman.

War films. They have evolved into a major American genre, since wars

have occupied so much of contemporary American history. The Second World

War has been the subject of the greatest number of American films in this

genre.

Horror films (thrillers). In the 1920s the creation of a monster who

gets out of control or is coming to life from non-human beings who survive

by killing the living provided the basic story lines of countless horror

films. These films also have dealt with supernatural forces that manifest

themselves as an unseen power rather than in individual form. A third major

kind of horror films deals with people who are insane or in the grip of

psychological powers beyond their control.

Horror films as a genre is associated with the name of Alfred

Hitchcock. Like Walt Disney with animated cartoons, Alfred Hitchcock was

thought not just to have invented a film genre but to have patented it

(hence "Hitch", another name for a horror film).

Detective and spy films. These include first of all the James Bond

series. Hitchcock's films of this genre feature ordinary people who

accidentally become involved with spies or other evil doers.

Science fiction. After the Second World War science-fiction films

increasingly suggested that the dangers of the future stemmed from what

human beings were doing in the present.

Film Companies

Columbia Pictures (also Columbia)-American film company, which produces

films for cinema and television.

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) a film company based in Hollywood, which

has made many famous films and animated cartoons.

Paramount- a film company in Hollywood.

20th Century-Fox an American film company.

United Artists a film company (studio) in Hollywood.

Universal n film company (studio) in Hollywood.

Warner Bros (Brothers) an American film company.

Film Directors and Producers

Alien, Woody (1935) a comic actor and maker of humorous films. Since

the late 1960s, he has been directing films and acting in them, usually

playing a neurotic, bookish New Yorker. Some of his best-known films have

been "Annie Hall", "Manhattan" and "Hannah and Her Sisters".

Capra, Frank (1897-1991) - a film director, best known for the films

"Mr. Smith Goes to Washington" and "It's a Wonderful Night".

Chaplin, Charlie (Charles Spencer) (1889-1977) an English actor and

director who worked mainly in the United States in silent black-and-white

comedy films. He created the beloved character, the Little Tramp, who wore

a shabby black suit, derby hat and floppy shoes, and walked with the backs

of his feet together and the toes pointing outwards. He always walked with

a cane.

By 1918 Chaplin had forsaken short comedies for longer, independently

made films, including "Shoulder Arms" (1918) and "The Kid" (1921). His

major films, produced for United Artists (a film company which he helped to

found in 1923), included "The Gold Rush" (1925), "The Circus" (1928), "City

Lights" (1931) and "Modern Times" (1936), the latter two made as silent

films with synchronized sound effects. Chaplin spoke on the screen for the

first time in "The Great Dictator" (1940), which ridiculed Hitler and

Mussolini. In "Monsieur Verdoux" (1947), which draws an acid analogy

between warfare and business morality, the tramp disappeared entirely; the

film provided further ammunition for a growing anti-Chaplin group who

attacked his unconventional personal life and political views.

After 1952 Chaplin resided in Switzerland. He starred in his production

"A King in New York" (1957), a sharp satire on contemporary America, and

wrote and directed "A Countess from Hongkong" (1967). Chaplin made a

triumphant return to the United States in 1972. He was given an Academy

Award (an Oscar) for his part in "making motion pictures the art form of

the century".

Coppola, Francis Ford (1939)- a film director, best known for the films

"'The Godfather" and "Apocalypse Now".

Ford, John (1895-1973) - a film director, especially known for his

Westerns including "Stagecoach", "How the West Was Won", etc.

Goldwin, Samuel (1882-1947) - a film producer, head of one of the

companies, which later became MGM. Goldwyn is famous for saying odd things

like "include me out".

Griffith, D. W. (1875-1948) - a film maker, known especially for his

use of new photographic methods and for his epic silent films, such as "The

Birth of the Nation" (1915) that required huge casts and enormous sets.

Griffith directed the first film, "The Adventures of Dollie", in 1908

and went on to make hundreds of pictures. With "The Birth of the Nation",

he created a landmark in film industry. Also influential on the future of

the film was "Intolerance" (1916). Griffith continued to make successful

films throughout the 1920s. However, the Victorian sentiment that pervades

his films was increasingly alien to the theme. He failed to make the

transition to sound pictures.

Russel, Ken (1926-) a film director, best known for documentary films

and for the film "Women in Love".

Scorsese, Martin (1942) a film director whose works include "Taxi

Driver", "The Last Temptation of Christ", etc.

Spielberg, Steven (1946) a film director who has made many very

popular films, including "Jaws", "LT", "Raiders of the Lost Ark", "Star

Wars", "Empire of the Sun", etc. His films

are well known for being very fast moving and full of exciting action.

Zinneman, Frederick (1907- ) an American film director, born in

Austria, famous for the films such as "High Noon" and "The Day of Jackal".

Wilder Billy (1906-) a film director whose films include "Sunset

Boulevard" and "Some Like It Hot".

Films.

"The Birth of the Nation" a dramatic silent film from 1915 about the

American Civil War. "The Birth of the Nation" was directed by D. W.

Griffith. The film, based on Thomas Dixon's novel "The Clansman", has been

condemned for historical distortion and racial bias, but it became a

landmark in the artistic development of motion pictures through its

successful introduction of many now-standard film techniques.

"Planet of the Apes " - a film set in about imaginary future where

monkeys rule the world.

''Psycho'' a horror film directed by Alfred Hitchcock. It is

especially known for a scene in which the character Mario (Janet Leigh) is

stabbed in a shower by Norman Bates (Anthony Perkins).

"Rocky" the first of a group of films (later ones were called "Rocky

II", "Rock III", etc.), starring Sylvester Stallone as a determined boxer

called Rocky. In each of the films the main character overcomes

difficulties and win a fight against a strong opponent. The films are

especially popular with young people.

"Star Wars " a popular science-fiction film about the battle between

the hero, Luke Skywalker, and Darth Vader, an evil person who wears a black

mask over his face and comes from an evil empire. The film was directed by

Steven Spielberg and is remembered for its many new exciting special

effects.

"The Terminator" a film with Arnold Schwarzenegger, set in Los

Angeles in the near future in which a lot of people are killed. The film

was followed by "Terminator II".

Actors and Actresses.

Astaire, Fred (18991987) a dancer, singer and actor who made many

films, often with his dancing partner, Ginger Rogers, and who was known for

his stylishness.

Bassinger, Kim (1954) a film actress, known especially for playing

attractive, sexy women.

Brando, Marlon (1924) an actor whose films include "A Streetcar

Named Desire", "On the Waterfront", "The Godfather", etc.

Cooper, Gary (19011962) an actor who often played strong, silent

heroes, for example in the film "High Noon".

Costner, Kevin (1955) an actor and director whose films include

"Dances with Wolves", "Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves", "JFK", etc.

Cruise, Tom (1962) an actor who has played leading film parts since

the early 1980s, e.g. in "Top Gun" and "Cocktail". He is especially popular

with women.

De Niro, Robert (1945) an actor, known especially for his part in

the films "Taxi Driver" and "The Deer Hunter".

Dietrich, Marlene (19041992) an American actress and nightclub

performer, born in Germany, who usually played the part of an extremely

sexually attractive woman. She is best remembered for her part in the film

"Blue Angel".

Douglas, Kirk (1916) a film actor, known for playing the hero in

films such as "Spartacus".

Douglas, Michael (1944) a film actor, son of Kirk Douglas, known for

his part in the films "Fatal Attraction" and ''Romancing the Stone".

Eastwood, Clint (1930) a film actor and director, best known for

playing parts as a gunfighter in Westerns and a modern city police officer.

His characters almost always have their right on their side, and no fear.

Fonda, Henry (1905-1982) - an actor who made many films including "The

Grapes of Wrath", "Twelve Angry Men", "On Golden Pond", etc.

Fonda, Jane (1937) an actress, daughter of Henry Fonda, known for

her left-wing views, especially her support for Vietnam and her opposition

to the American government during the Vietnam War. Her best-known films are

"The China Syndrome" and, with her father, "On Golden Pond". She is also

known for her interest in active physical exercise.

Fonda, Peter (1939) an actor and director, best known for his film

"Easy Rider"; son of Henry Fonda.

Fox, Michael (1961-) -- an American actor, born in Canada, who has

appeared in such films as "Back to the Future" (parts 1, 2, 3). He is very

popular, especially with young girls.

Gable, Clark (1901-1960) - a film actor, best known for his role as

Rhett Butler in "Gone with the Wind". He also appeared in many other

Hollywood films, including "Mutiny on the Bounty", "The Misfits", etc.

Garbo, Greta (19051990) an American film actress, born in Sweden.

She was celebrated for her classic beauty and her portrayals of moody

characters.

Having first attracted notice in the Swedish silent film The Story of

Gosta Berling (1924), Garbo went to the United States in 1925 and became

perhaps the most celebrated motion-picture actress of the time, a

provocative, enigmatic embodiment of feminine beauty and mystery. Flesh

and the Devil was her best-known silent film; among her notable talking

pictures were Anna Christie and the comedy Ninotchka.

Greta Garbo became famous for her with drawn, aloof off-screen

personality. In the movie Grand Hotel, she made the famous complaint, I

want to be alone. Garbo retired from the movies in the early 1940s and

lived as a recluse ever since.

Garland, Judy (1922-1969) - a film actress and singer who was most

famous as the character of Dorothy in the film "The Wizard of Oz".

Gere, Richard (1949) an actor, known especially for his part in the

films "American Gigolo", "An Officer and a Gentleman" and "Pretty Woman".

Goldberg, Whoopi (1949-) - a film actress who appeared in "The Color

Purple" and "Ghost".

Grant, Cary (1904-1986) - an American actor, born in Britain, who is

remembered especially for his comic films including ''The Philadelphia

Story'' and ''Bringing Up Baby''.

Hoffman, Dustin (1937-) - a film actor, best known for his roles in the

films "The Graduate", "Kramer vs. Kramer", "Midnight Cowboy", "The Rain

Man", etc.

Kelly, Gene (1912-1996) - a film actor, dancer and director who

appeared in many musicals of the 1940s and 1950s, including "Singing in the

Rain", in which he sang and danced to a song with the same name.

Kelly, Grace (1928-1982) - a film actress, star of "High Noon" and

"High Society" in the 1950s, who became Princess Grace of Monaco when she

married Prince Rainier.

Marvin, Lee (19241987) a film actor, known especially for playing

strong, violent characters in films such as "The Dirty Dozen" and "Point

Blank". He is also remembered for singing the song "I was born under a

wandering star" in a very deep voice.

Mathau, Walter (1922) an actor in films and theater, known

especially for his humorous roles, e.g. in "The Odd Couple".

Monroe, Marilyn (19261962) a film actress whose real name was Norma

Jean Baker, who starred in films during the middle of the 20th century and

became the leading sex symbol of the 1950s.

Monroe first attracted notice in The Asphalt Jungle, thereafter she

became a reigning screen siren. Her major films include Gentlemen Prefer

Blondes, The Seven Year Itch, Bus Stop and Some Like It Hot.

While still in her thirties, she died of an overdose of sleeping pills.

To many people, Marilyn Monroe is a tragic symbol of the unhappiness

that can accompany fame and glamor.

Murphy, Eddie (1961) an actor and comedian who first became known

for his work on the television program Saturday Night Live but now is

known mostly for his films, such as Trading Places and Beverly Hills

Cop.

Newman, Paul (1925) an actor and director, lending male star of

Hollywood films in the 1900s and 1970s and considered very attractive. His

films include Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, The Sting, The Color

of Money, etc.

Nicholson, Jack (1937) an actor who started appearing in films in

the l960s, such as Easy Rider which represented the feelings of young

Americans, and has now become a big Hollywood star.

Pacino, Al (1940) an actor, known for the films such as The

Godfather and Scarface.

Poitier, Sidney (1927) a black Amer ican film star and director, who

was one of the first black actors to play serious parts rather than black

stereotypes.

Pryor, Richard (1940-) - a comedian who has appeared in films and made

several records. He is black and often makes jokes about situations

involving black and white people together.

Redford, Robert (1937) a film actor and director who was in films

such as ''Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid'',The Sting and Out of

Africa. He is popular for his good looks as well as his acting.

Schwarzenegger, Arnold (1947) an American actor, born in Austria,

whose bodybuilding appearance won him the titles of Mr. Gcrriiaiiy and Mr.

Universe. He is best known for his part in the film The Terminator in

which he plays the hero.

Scott, George C. (1926) an actor, best known for his film parts,

especially strong-willed characters, such as soldiers. He was the first

actor to refuse an Oscar.

Streisand, Barbra (1942) a singer and actress who has performed on

stage and in many successful film musicals, including Hello, Dolly, The

Way We Were, A Star is Born, etc.

Taylor, Elizabeth (1932) an American film actress, born in Britain.

She began making films at the age of ten, but is perhaps at least as well

known for marriages, of which there have been eight (two of them to Richard

Burton).

Temple, Shirley (1928) a film actress who was the child star of over

20 films in the 1930s, and in later life, as Shirley Temple Black, became a

US ambassador. She was very popular when her films first appeared because

of her style of singing, dancing and acting and her curly golden hair.

Valentino, Rudolph (1895I926) an American film actor, born in Italy.

He was famous for playing the part of a lover in silent films, especially

in The Sheikh. He is sometimes mentioned as a typical example of a good-

looking romantic man. Valentino was a ballroom dancer and movie extra

before reaching stardom in Four Horsemen in the Apocalypse (1921).

Soon he became the American womens idea of masculinity, and his

private life and loves were avidly reported in newspapers and magazines.

His physique, his good looks and his physical grace were well exhibited in

The Sheikh and Monsieur Beaucaire. Valentinos most successful film is

Blood and Sand, for here he seems able to bring some of his own

personality to the portrayal of the matador, an opportunity his other, more

stereotyped roles had thwarted. His untimely death created a national furor

and reportedly drove some of his fans to suicide.

Wayne, John (1907-1979) - a film actor who often played "tough guys",

particularly soldiers and cowboys.

Early in his career Wayne appeared as Hollywood's first singing cowboy.

In 1939, in "Stagecoach", he achieved star status. In his 50-year career he

appeared in more than 200 motion pictures. Some of his outstanding films

are "Red River", "The Quiet Man", "The High and Mighty", "The Searchers",

"True Grit", for which he won an Academy Award (1969), and "Shootist".

The characters John Wayne played, especially in Westerns ("Stagecoach",

"True Grit"), were often honest, strong, independent and patriotic. Because

he played these characters, John Wayne was thought to have those qualities

himself and was an example of a good American. His old-fashioned patriotism

made him something of a folk hero. In 1979 he was voted a Congressional

gold medal; the inscription read, "John Wayne American".

Williams, Robin (1952) an actor and comedian whose films include

Good Morning, Vietnam, Dead Poets Society, etc.

Marilyn Monroe.

I think that the greatest actress not only of the USA, but of the whole

world is Marilyn Monroe. So I d like to tell some facts about her life.

Six queens come and go, easily crowned, easily forgotten. Yet Marilyn

Monroes memory has remained very much alive. Admirers still cut her

picture out of public library books, artists still paint her; even the

young have become familiar with her name and her face by watching her films

on television.

Death has changed the sexy blonde into a myth, a symbol of soft

femininity and loveliness. Nowadays she is sometimes mistaken for a saintly

martyr, which she certainly was not. But then, what was she? Those who knew

her disagree so violently that it is difficult to see the real woman

through the conflicting judgments of her friends. A simple little girl to

her first husband, producer Mike Todd, she was also been described as the

most unappreciated person in the world, the meanest woman in Hollywood, a

tart, an enchanting child, an idiot, a wit, a great natural intelligence, a

victim, and a clod user of people From the very contradiction, one can

guess that she was not simple. And obviously she had something special- not

talent, perhaps, but a certain spark. It is well known that most of her

problems had their roots in an unhappy childhood.

Marilyn had come into the world in a Los Angels hospital as Norma Jean

Mortensen. Her mother, Gladys Monroe Mortensen, loved her child; but since

she had to work, she left her in the hands of Ida and Albert Bolender, a

respectable couple who boarded children on their farm. Norma Jean spent her

first seven years with them. Her physical needs were well looked after, and

Gladys visited faithfully every weekend. But when she had gone, there was

not much warmth around the little girl. For Norma Jean, who was extremely

sensitive, it was a lonely, distressing childhood. In 1933 Gladys bought a

house and took her daughter home with her. But she was not there much and

when she was out, Norma Jean had to stay with the elderly couple who rented

part of the house. They were not bad people, only indifferent and more

interested in drinking than in baby-sitting. When Norma Jean didnt have to

go to school, the couple dropped her at a nearly movie house in time for

the first afternoon show. The little girl watched happily all day, and

after the last matinee she walked home by herself. In her room, later, she

would act out the whole story. In this way she developed a passion for

acting that she never outgrew. After nine months of live together, Gladys

had a mental collaps and was hospitalized. She appeared from time to time

in her daughters life, but more as a burden than as a support. Many people

took Norma Jean under their wings throughout the years. She looked so

insecure, so defenseless, that men and women alike felt compelled to

protect her.

However vague Norma Jean may have been about life in general, she

never felt vague about the career she wanted to have. She wanted to be an

actress. But the first three years of Marilyns career didnt bring her

more than a few very small parts. She kept herself alive by modeling. In

1950 Marilyn attracted attention in a small part in The Asphalt Jungle,

which had been obtained for her by a powerful protector. Another protector,

and the most influential by far, was the agent Johnny Hyde. Hyde was a

powerful man in Hollywood when he met Marilyn. He was too wise to claim

that she had talent; instead he insisted that such personality didnt need

to be talented. He succeeded in getting her a part in All About Eve, a

film that was to prove lucky for all its actors. The font mail started

piling up. The Hollywood columnists included the new blonde in their gossip

columns. Soon Life and Look magazines were honoring her with long

articles, and one critic ventured to declare her a forceful actress. The

studio, after having her co-star in several pictures, finally gave her a

starring role in Niagara in 1953. She had become the Foxs biggest

moneymaker.

Whenever she appeared she was cornered by excited admirers and

photographers. But there was no private happiness behind the facade, and

even her fame was not of the kind she would have liked. She resented her

shallow roles; she resented the fact she had no voice in the choice of her

scripts and that her old contract was keeping salary ridiculously low for a

star. Hurt, she retaliated as best as she could. She arrived late on the

set, unprepared and obviously indifferent to the hardships. She was

imposing on the other actors and the technicians. Scenes had to be redone

forty or fifty times because she could not remember a four-word sentence.

If something displeased her, she locked herself in her dressing room, or

failed to show up at all for days. Her behavior disgusted the people who

worked with her, but her fans loved the radiant child-woman on the screen.

In 1961 after divorcing her next husband the famous American playwright

Arthur Miller, Marilyn drifted back to the West Coast to open a new page in

her life. On August 5, 1962 she was found dead in her house. She had made

many attempts at suicide before. But it does not seem that she intended to

hill herself that Saturday. When she retired for the night, she had plans

for the next day. But early in the morning her housekeeper found her dead.

The world was shocked. In the words of one of her biographers: She

broke her heart trying to achieve something she didnt have in her to

accomplish.

Walt Disney

Walt Disney was an American artist and film producer, who was famous

for his animated cartoons. He was born on December 5, 1901 in Chicago, his

father being Irish Canadian, his mother of German-American origin. In his

early child hood he revealed a talent for drawing and an interest in

photography. His teens he began an art course, but World War I broke out

and he drove for the Red Cross in Europe. When he got back to America he

met artist Ub Iwerks, and they went into business together.

In 1923 he left with his brother for Hollywood Walt Disney and Ub

Iwerks made a series of short cartoons but lost all their money, and for

some years struggled against poverty. Luckily, Walts brother Roy gave him

more to start up again. The first talking picture came out in 1927 and

Disney realized that sound held the key to the future of films. He

developed many techniques in producing cartoons.

His most famous characters are Mickey Mouse, Duck and Pluto. The first

Mickey Mouse cartoon was drawn 1928. It was the first sound cartoon, which

brought great success to its creator. In the early cartoons he was really

horrible. He looked quite rat-like with long pointed nose and small eyes.

Later his face changed. His head got as big as his body or almost, his

eyes got bigger, too. He got younger instead of older. That makes him

cuter. Now it is an acceptable symbol for the USA. Donald Duck was created

in 1936. Walt Disney took the biggest risk of his career and spent a

fortune on a full-length cartoon. Finally, the first full-length cartoon

feature film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was brought out in 1935,

which the public paid millions of dollars to see The songs to the cartoon

were written by Frank Churchill. After the Second World War Disney

turned his attention to real life nature studies and non-cartoon films

with living actors.

In the 1950s and 1960s, Walt Disney began developing the family-

entertainment parks, Disneyland and Disney World. The first Disneyland was

opened in southern California in 1955. It is situated 27 miles south of Los

Angeles, at Anaheim. Of all the show-places none is as famous as

Disneyland. This superb kingdom of fantasy linked to technology was created

by Walt Disney. The park is divided into six themes and there is so much to

see and do in each that no one would attempt to see all of them in one

visit. For extended visits, there are hotels nearby. In 1971 Disney World

was opened in Florida.

Walt Disney died in California at the age of 65. But his films are

still shown regularly at the cinema, because of their time1esS quality and

will be shown for years to come.Walter (Walt) Elias Disney has won more

Oscars the awards of the United States Academy of Motion Picture Arts

and Sciences, instituted on May 16, 1929 and named after Oscar Pierce of

Texas, USA than any other person:20 statuettes and 12 other plagues and

certificates, including posthumous awards.

Titanic.

The shooting of Titanic in 1997 brought people flocking to the

cinemas. It has become a blockbuster and brought big profits to the

producers. The reasons are:on the one hand, the thrilling plot of the film,

depicting the first of the greatest disasters of the 20th century, and, on

the other hand, new technologies of film making, used by James Cameron, the

producer. Everybody wanted to see if the film was really worth eleven

Oscar awards.

Titanic is the latest screen version of the tragedy happened on

April 14-15, 1912 during the maiden voyage of the British luxury passenger

liner. The vessel sank with a loss of about 1,500 lives:men, women,

children. Their voyage on board the dream ship ended in a nightmare. It

revealted all human vices: arrogance, self-satisfaction, greed, selfishness

and self-confidence. But at the same time this tragedy showed the best

traits of humancharacter: the sense of duty and responsibility, self-

sacrifice and short but immortial love. The love-story about Jack and Rose,

a young poor artist and a 17-year old girl from the upper society, arouses

uor sympathy and admiration. Paired with the main story-line, it adds much

to the impression of the film. Titanic made the leading actors Leonardo

Di Caprio and Kate Winslent international celebrities. The music of James

Horner created a special atmosphere in the film and has become popular with

the public.

The film is interesting not only from the artistic point of view, but

from the technical ones as well. Both the ship and the ocean are virtual,

created by computers. Besides, we can see unique pictures of The Titanic

buried in the depth of the ocean. Its wreck was found lying in two pieces

on the ocean floor at the depth of about 4,000 ..metres. The pictures were

taken with the help of the Russian ocean-explores and shown to the whole

world.

By the way, the film was directed by James Cameron, famous for creating

very expensive films with new special effects, which were the biggest box-

office success. Titanic is not an exception. Critics say the film has

opened a new era in film production. I think they are right.

Literature.

1. In The USA. Martha Bordman

2. Introducing The USA. Milode Broukol, Peter Murphy.

3. Childrens Britannica. Volume 7.

4. . .. , . .

5. . . . , . . .

6. 3.

7. 6.

8. . . . . , . . .

Vocabularly.

Mothion picture industry -

Release -

Nervous breakdown -

Mercilessly -

To keep ones grip -

To hit the nail on the head -

Skit -

Antics - ,

Unheard-of -

Reentry -

Flock -

Plot -

Depict -

Screen version -

Shooting - ()

Nightmare -

Reveal - ,

Vice - , ,

Arrogance - ,

Trait of character -

Immortial - ,

Wreck -

Direct - ()

Essential -

Indispensable -

Trade skills -

Aim -

Be at ones disposal - -

Facilities - ,

Inspiration -

Enrich -

Genre -

Aspiration - ,

Pricless -

Spitting image -



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