Иностранные языки
Искусство и культура
Исторические личности
Коммуникации и связь
Литература зарубежная
Литература русская
Военная кафедра
Банковское дело
Биржевое дело
Ботаника и сельское хозяйство
Бухгалтерский учет и аудит
Валютные отношения
Государство и право
Гражданское право и процесс

Global warming

Global warming

Global warming

What is the greenhouse effect, and is it affecting our climate?

The greenhouse effect is unquestionably real, and is essential for life

on Earth. It is the result of heat absorption by certain gases in the

atmosphere (called greenhouse gases because they trap heat) and re-

radiation downward of a part of that heat. Water vapor is the most

important greenhouse gas, followed by carbon dioxide and other trace

gases. Without a natural greenhouse effect, the temperature of the Earth

would be about zero degrees F (-18°C) instead of its present 57°F (14°C).

However, the concern is not with the fact that we have a greenhouse

effect, but it is with the question regarding whether human activities

are leading to an enhancement of the greenhouse effect.

Are greenhouse gases increasing?

Human activity has been increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases

in the atmosphere (mostly carbon dioxide from combustion of coal, oil,

and gas; plus a few other trace gases). There is no scientific debate on

this point. Pre-industrial levels of carbon dioxide (prior to the start

of the Industrial Revolution) were about 280 parts per million by volume

(ppmv), and current levels are about 370 ppmv. According to the IPCC

"business as usual" scenario of carbon dioxide increase (IS92a) in the

21st century, we would expect to see a doubling of carbon dioxide over

pre-industrial levels around the year 2065.

Is the climate warming?

Global surface temperatures have increased about 0.6°C (plus or minus

0.2°C) since the late-19th century, and about one half degree F (0.2 to

0.3°C) over the past 25 years (the period with the most credible data).

The warming has not been globally uniform. Some areas (including parts of

the southeastern U.S.) have cooled. The recent warmth has been greatest

over N. America and Eurasia between 40 and 70°N. Warming, assisted by the

record El Niсo of 1997-1998, has continued right up to the present.

Linear trends can vary greatly depending on the period over which they

are computed. Temperature trends in the lower troposphere (between about

2,500 and 18,000 ft.) from 1979 to the present, the period for which

Satellite Microwave Sounding Unit data exist, are small and may be

unrepresentative of longer term trends and trends closer to the surface.

Furthermore, there are small unresolved differences between radiosonde

and satellite observations of tropospheric temperatures, though both data

sources show slight warming trends. If one calculates trends beginning

with the commencement of radiosonde data in the 1950s, there is a slight

greater warming in the record due to increases in the 1970s. There are

statistical and physical reasons (e.g., short record lengths, the

transient differential effects of volcanic activity and El Niсo, and

boundary layer effects) for expecting differences between recent trends

in surface and lower tropospheric temperatures, but the exact causes for

the differences are still under investigation (see National Research

Council report "Reconciling Observations of Global Temperature Change").

An enhanced greenhouse effect is expected to cause cooling in higher

parts of the atmosphere because the increased "blanketing" effect in the

lower atmosphere holds in more heat. Cooling of the lower stratosphere

(about 30-35,000ft.) since 1979 is shown by both satellite Microwave

Sounding Unit and radiosonde data, but is larger in the radiosonde data.

There has been a general, but not global, tendency toward reduced diurnal

temperature range (the difference between high and low daily

temperatures) over about 50% of the global land mass since the middle of

the 20th century. Cloud cover has increased in many of the areas with

reduced diurnal temperature range.

Relatively cool surface and tropospheric temperatures, and a relatively

warmer lower stratosphere, were observed in 1992 and 1993, following the

1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. The warming reappeared in 1994. A dramatic

global warming, at least partly associated with the record El Niсo, took

place in 1998. This warming episode is reflected from the surface to the

top of the troposphere.

Indirect indicators of warming such as borehole temperatures, snow cover,

and glacier recession data, are in substantial agreement with the more

direct indicators of recent warmth.

Arctic sea ice has decreased since 1973, when satellite measurements

began but Antarctic sea ice may have increased slightly.

Are El Ninos related to Global Warming?

El Ninos are not caused by global warming. Clear evidence exists from a

variety of sources (including archaeological studies) that El Ninos have

been present for hundreds, and some indicators suggest maybe millions, of

years. However, it has been hypothesized that warmer global sea surface

temperatures can enhance the El Niсo phenomenon, and it is also true that

El Ninos have been more frequent and intense in recent decades.Recent

climate model results that simulate the 21st century with increased

greenhouse gases (using the IPCC IS92a greenhouse gas increase scenario)

suggest that El Niсos are likely to become more common in the future.

Is the hydrological cycle (evaporation and precipitation) changing?

There has probably been only a small (1%) increase in global

precipitation over land during the 20th century. Precipitation has

increased over land in high latitudes of the northern hemisphere,

especially during the cold season, concomitant with temperature

increases. A step-like decrease of precipitation occurred after the 1960s

between the equator and about 35 degrees latitude, from Africa to

Indonesia, as temperatures increased. These changes are consistent with

observed changes in streamflow, lake levels, and soil moisture (where

data are available and have been analyzed).

Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent has consistently remained below

average since 1987.

Pan evaporation, a measure of potential evaporation, has decreased since

1951 over much of the former Soviet Union and the U.S. However, actual

evaporation, which is dependant on available water, may have increased.

Evaporation appears to have increased over the tropical oceans (although

not everywhere). The evidence suggests an increase of atmospheric water

vapor in the tropics, at least since 1973.

In general, cloud amount has increased both over land and ocean in recent

decades. Over the ocean, increases in convective and middle- and high-

level clouds have been reported.

Is the atmospheric/oceanic circulation changing?

A rather abrupt change in the El Niсo - Southern Oscillation behavior

occurred around 1976/77 and the new regime has persisted. There have been

relatively more frequent El Niсo episodes. This behavior is highly

unusual in the last 120 years (the period of instrumental record).

Changes in precipitation over the tropical Pacific are related to this

change in the El Niсo - Southern Oscillation, which has also affected the

pattern and magnitude of surface temperatures.

Is the climate becoming more variable or extreme?

On a global scale there is little evidence of sustained trends in climate

variability or extremes. This perhaps reflects inadequate data and a

dearth of analyses. However, on regional scales, there is clear evidence

of changes in variability or extremes.

In areas where a drought usually accompanies an El Niсo, droughts have

been more frequent in recent years. Other than these areas and the few

areas with longer term trends to lower rainfall (e.g., the Sahel), little

evidence is available of changes in drought frequency or intensity.

In some areas there is evidence of increases in the intensity of extreme

rainfall events, but no clear global pattern has emerged. Despite the

occurrence in recent years of several regional-scale extreme floods there

is no evidence of wide-spread changes in flood frequency. This may

reflect the dearth of studies, definition problems, and/or difficulties

in distinguishing the results of land use changes from meteorological


There is some evidence of recent (since 1988) increases in extreme

extratropical cyclones over the North Atlantic. Intense tropical cyclone

activity in the Atlantic appears to have decreased over the past few

decades. Elsewhere, changes in observing systems confound the detection

of trends in the intensity or frequency of extreme synoptic systems.

There has been a clear trend to fewer extremely low minimum temperatures

in several widely-separated areas in recent decades. Widespread

significant changes in extreme high temperature events have not been


There is some indication of a decrease in day-to-day temperature

variability in recent decades.

How important are these changes in a longer-term context?

For the Northern Hemisphere summer temperature, recent decades appear to

be the warmest since at least about 1000AD, and the warming since the

late 19th century is unprecedented over the last 1000 years. Older data

are insufficient to provide reliable hemispheric temperature estimates.

Ice core data suggest that the 20th century has been warm in many parts

of the globe, but also that the significance of the warming varies

geographically, when viewed in the context of climate variations of the

last millennium.

Large and rapid climatic changes affecting the atmospheric and oceanic

circulation and temperature, and the hydrological cycle, occurred during

the last ice age and during the transition towards the present Holocene

period (which began about 10,000 years ago). Based on the incomplete

evidence available, the projected change of 3 to 7°F (1.5 - 4°C) over the

next century would be unprecedented in comparison with the best available

records from the last several thousand years.

Is sea level rising?

Global mean sea level has been rising at an average rate of 1 to 2

mm/year over the past 100 years, which is significantly larger than the

rate averaged over the last thousand years. Projected increase for the

21st century is about 0.5 meter, but estimates range widely.

Can the observed changes be explained by natural variability, including

changes in solar output?

Some changes, particularly part of the pre-1960 temperature record, show

some relationship with solar output, but the more recent warm era is not

well correlated. The exact magnitude of purely natural global mean

temperature variance is not known precisely, but model experiments

excluding solar variation indicate that it is likely less than the

variability observed during this century.

Global Warming or Global Cooling the Threat for the Future?

Has the climate of the United States changed significantly during the

century that is about to end? In what ways and by how much? Have national

trends emerged that agree--or perhaps disagree--with what is expected from

projections of global greenhouse warming? These are questions addressed in

a report entitled "Trends in U.S. Climate during the Twentieth Century," by

Thomas R. Karl, Richard W. Knight, David R. Easterling, Robert G. Quayle

who serve on the scientific staff of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric

Administration's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), in Asheville, North

Carolina. Thomas "The challenge to the climatologist is to separate any

meaningful signals from ever-present noise, and to discern, if possible,

whether there is indeed at work the sometimes slow and subtle hand of

significant change. The second task, which is even harder, is to identify,

unequivocally, the cause," according to the scientists was the focus of

their study.

"Before such questions can be answered, we need to remind ourselves that

'climate', as it is defined for a specific region and time, includes more

than the simple average of weather conditions. Either random events or long-

term persistent change, or more often combinations of them, can bring about

significant swings in a variety of climate indicators from one time period

to the next. Examples include a year dominated by severe drought and the

next excessively wet; a series of bitterly cold winters followed by winters

more mild; one scorching summer preceded by a summer pleasantly warm; years

with numerous severe storms followed by years with few severe storms. The

temptation at each time and place is often to attribute any of these

temporal and sometimes local variations to a wider and more pervasive

change in climate..."


In their assessment they noted that the so-called "greenhouse" gases "have

all been markedly increasing in amount since about the time of the

industrial revolution, that began in earnest some 150 years ago. The

largest and best-known contributor is carbon dioxide, originating

principally from the burning of wood and coal and petroleum derivatives.

However, other climatic trends include "changes in the composition of the

atmosphere in ways that act to cool the surface temperature. This includes

the anthropogenic decrease of stratospheric ozone, and an increase in

anthropogenic microscopic sulfate particles, often readily apparent during

the warm season as smog. The effect of these additional atmospheric

constituents on global climate is less certain than that of the better

known greenhouse gases, but models suggest that in some areas they may have

already acted to significantly retard greenhouse warming. It is important

to note, however, that the global-scale warming predicted in climate

modeling experiments from future greenhouse gas increases is substantially

larger on a global average than the regional cooling expected from these

other sources.

Measurements of past and current levels of carbon dioxide and other

greenhouse gases indicate that we should have already increased the global

greenhouse effect by man-made, or anthropogenic additions, by nearly 40% in

the last 150 years. If these changes were the only process of importance,

then the same mathematical climate models suggest that the average global

surface temperature should have risen by about 1° C during this time.

Available climate data suggest that the mean global temperature has indeed

risen, but unsteadily and by only about half that amount.

"Confounding any search for anthropogenic effects are the natural changes

and variations of climate that will constantly add to or subtract from the

expected signal. Examples include changes in upper atmospheric steering

winds (commonly known as the jet stream) due to ocean-atmosphere

interactions; changes in the circulation of the ocean that can influence

air temperatures; effects of major volcanic eruptions; feedbacks from

changes in the land surface, as in soil moisture, snow cover, and plant

cover; and changes in the energy received from the Sun.


Another factor in the climatic equation is precipitation and drought.

Studies indicate that, "since about 1970 precipitation has tended to remain

above the twentieth century mean, averaging about 5% higher than in the

previous 70 years. Such an increase hints at a change in climate.

Statistical analysis suggests that the change is unusual, but there is

still about a 10% chance that such a change could arise from a stable or

quasi-stationary climate without any real long-term changes."


While during the 1930's there was a sharp rise in temperature, there was a

modest cooling trend from the 1950's to the 1970 when the temperature began

to rise again. There has been a rise in temperature since the 1970's . The

report states, " A straightforward statistical average of mean temperatures

across the U.S. gives evidence of a rise through the century of about 0.3

to 0.4° C (0.6 to 0.8° F), although so crude a characterization of mean

temperature change in the U.S. would be indeed a gross oversimplification."

"The increase in annual temperatures after the 1970s is mainly the result

of significant increases of temperature during the first six months of the

year (winter and spring). Temperatures during summer and autumn have

changed little after dropping from conditions of the warm 1930s. Unusually

high precipitation and cloud amount tend to cool the air, especially during

the second half of the year. It is rare to find much above normal

precipitation and cloud amount during these two seasons when temperatures

are higher than normal.

"On a regional basis the West contributes most to the increase of annual

average nation-wide temperatures. As with drought and excessive moisture,

portions of the country can be extremely cold at the same time that others

are unusually warm, leading to an average national temperature that is near-

normal. Similarly, abnormally high daytime maximum temperatures can occur

while nighttime temperatures remain below normal, or vice-versa, although

these are not usually the case."


"Changes and variations of destructive storms are of particular interest

because of their socio-economic and biophysical impact. Reliable records of

the number and intensity of tropical hurricanes that reach the U.S. go back

to at least 1900.Based on a commonly used classification of hurricane

intensity, the studies indicates that the frequency of these violent storms

that make landfall in the U.S. has been relatively low over the past few

decades, as compared to the middle of the century. The decline is reflected

in both the total number of hurricanes making landfall in the U.S. and in

the occurrence of more destructive storms. It is difficult to discern any

long-term trend however, since the frequency of hurricanes was also low in

the early part of the century. Furthermore, recent studies indicate that

even if significant greenhouse induced warming were to occur, it is

doubtful whether increases in tropical storms would be detectable due to

the large natural variability in these storms."


Another factor the climatologists have studied are changes in circulation

over the past few decades. Since the winter of 1976-77, the sea-surface

temperatures in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific have remained

anomalously warm. The report states:"Such events have been directly linked

to increased precipitation in the southeastern U.S. and warmer than normal

temperatures in the Pacific Northwest. During these same years a large-

scale redistribution of atmospheric mass has taken place in the North

Pacific, associated with a change of the upper-level steering winds over

the North Pacific and North America. El Niс o events (and their opposition

phases, La Niс a events) have been quantitatively linked to the 1988

drought, to increased precipitation in the South, and to other abnormal

temperature conditions in the U.S. Variations in the circulation of the

North Atlantic Ocean have also directly influenced the eastern U.S. climate

in the form of stronger than normal winds over these regions that seem to

oscillate on decadal time-scales. Such oscillations have been linked to

colder than normal temperatures in the region."


"Most readers will by now agree that it is difficult to draw a simple

picture that summarizes the many parameters and multidimensional aspects of

observed climate change and variability, no matter how complete the record.

One approach toward simplification might be to consider only long-term

measurements of a few near-surface conditions: temperature and

precipitation, for example, are two primary elements of climate that affect

many aspects of our lives. But neither tells the whole story.


"Several indicators stand out most conspicuously in the picture of surface

climate variations and changes in the U.S. over the past century. These

include the rather steady increase in precipitation derived from extreme 1-

day precipitation events; the systematic decrease in the day-to-day

variations of temperature; and the increased frequency of days with

precipitation. Trends in other indicators of climate change are now neither

sufficiently large nor persistent enough to be considered as strongly

suggestive of systematic change, even though it remains a likely

explanation. These include the increase of total precipitation and the

related increase in cloud amount, as well as an overall increase in mean

temperature. The area of the country that has experienced an increase in

mean temperature has risen while the proportion of the country with much

below normal mean minimum temperatures has decreased. Many of these

indicators appear to have undergone significant change during the late

1970s and have more or less remained at these levels to the present. In

contrast, other surface climate change indicators (such as the frequency of

tropical cyclones) reflect the kind of climatic variability that is

completely consistent with the premise of a stable or unchanging climate.

The increase in temperature across the U.S. in this century is slightly

smaller, but of comparable magnitude to the increase of temperature that

has characterized the world as a whole. The increase in minimum temperature

and the related increase in area affected by much above normal minimum

temperatures are also found in many other countries of the northern

hemisphere. Worldwide precipitation over land has changed little through

the twentieth century; increases noted in high latitudes have been balanced

by low-latitude decreases. By comparison, the change in precipitation in

the U.S. is still relatively moderate compared to some of the increases and

decreases at other latitudes. Decreases in the day-to-day differences of

temperature observed in the U.S. are also apparent in China and Russia, the

only other large countries analyzed as of this date. The persistent

increase in the proportion of precipitation derived from extremely heavy

precipitation has not been detected in these other countries.

Global warming

Introduction in Global warming

“Global warming” has been introduced by the scientific community and the

media as the term that encompasses all potential changes in climate that

result from higher average global temperatures. Hundreds of scientists from

many different countries are working to understand global warming and have

come to a consensus on several important aspects. In general, Global

warming will produce far more profound climatic changes than simply a rise

in global temperature.

A recent study by an international panel of scientists suggested that if

trends in current emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols continue, the

globe may warm by an average of 2°C by the year 2100. The average rate of

warming would probably be greater than any seen in the last 10,000 years

An analysis of temperature records shows that the Earth has warmed an

average of 0.5°C over the past 100 years. This is consistent with

predictions of global warming due to an enhanced greenhouse effect and

increased aerosols. Yet, it could also be within acceptable limits for

natural temperature variation. The twelve warmest years of the twentieth

century have occurred since 1980. The Earth’s warmest years since 1861 have

been: 1981, 1983, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997 and

1998. 1997 and 1998 were the two warmest years recorded during that period.

This lends support to the assumption that the Earth’s climate is warming.

However, it may take another decade of continued increases in global

temperatures to provide conclusive evidence that the world’s climate is

warming as a result of the enhanced greenhouse effect.

Global surface air temperature in 1997 was warmer than any previous year

this century, marginally exceeding the temperature of 1995. Part of the

current global warmth is associated with the tropical El NiЯo, without

which a record global temperature would probably not have occurred.

Global surface temperatures in 1998 set a new record for the period of

instrumental measurements, report NASA/GISS researchers who analyzed data

collected from several thousand meteorological stations around the world.

The global temperature exceeded that of the previous record year, by such a

wide margin that the 1998 calendar year is certain to also set a new

record. The United States experienced in 1998 its warmest year in the past

several decades. As for the Russia, global surface air temperatures in 1997-

98 were not warmer than previous years.

Until recently, researchers were uncertain whether Climate developments

reflected natural variations in the Earth, or whether in fact human

activities contributed to the warming. The latest observed data reveals

some striking trends:

- All 10 of the warmest years on record have occurred in the last 15 years.

- The 1990s have already been warmer than the 1980s - the warmest decade on

record - by almost 0.2°F (0.1°C), according to the Goddard Institute of

Space Studies.

- The global average surface temperature has risen 0.5°-1.1°F (0.3°-0.6°C)

since reliable records began in the second half of the 19th century.

In 1995, scientists with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change -

the authoritative international body charged with studying this issue-

reached a conclusion in the Second Assessment Report, which summarizes the

current state of scientific knowledge on global warming, also called

climate change.

For the first time ever, the Panel concluded that the observed increase in

global average temperature over the last century "is unlikely to be

entirely natural in origin" and that "the balance of evidence suggests that

there is a discernible human influence on global climate."

The Cause

The Earth's climate is the result of extremely complex interactions among

the atmosphere, the oceans, the land masses, and living organisms, which

are all warmed daily by the sun's energy. This heat would radiate back into

space if not for the atmosphere, which relies on a delicate balance of heat-

trapping gases - including water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and

methane - to act as a natural "greenhouse," keeping in just the right

amount of the sun's energy to support life.

For the past 150 years, though, the atmospheric concentrations of these

gases, particularly carbon dioxide, have been rising. As a result, more

heat is being trapped than previously, which in turn is causing the global

temperature to rise. Climate scientists have linked the increased levels of

heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere to human activities, in particular

the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas for heating and

electricity; gasoline for transportation), deforestation, cattle ranching,

and rice farming.

But Global Warming has received much press in the past decade. There are

many questions like these ones. Could the earth’s climate really heat up?

What are the causes if such a warming occurs? Is global warming a theory

and thrue or false theory at that?

These questions and more are what climate scientists are asking themselves

daily. So, there are two sides to every story and both are discussed in the


The Impacts

As the Earth's climate is the result of extremely complex interactions,

scientists still cannot predict the exact impact on the earth's climate of

these rising levels of heat-trapping gases over the next century. But there

is striking agreement among most climate scientists about what is likely to

occur. Poureful climate models suggest that the planet will warm over the

next century at a more rapid rate than ever before recorded. The current

best estimate is that if carbon dioxide concentrations double over

preindustrial levels, global average surface temperatures will rise between

1.8° and 6.3°F (between 1° and 3.5°C). According to the scientific possible

scenarios, an atmospheric doubling of carbon dioxide could occur as early

as 2050. Future impacts from this kind of warming will most likely include:

- damage to human health

- severe stress on forests, wetlands, and other natural habitats

- dislocation of agriculture and commerce

- expansion of the earth's deserts

- melting of polar ice caps and consequent rise in the sea level

- more extreme weather events

The Future and Global Warming Policy

During the 1980-90s, evidence mounted that increased atmospheric

concentrations of heat-trapping gases could cause significant disruptions

of the earth's climate systems. These discoveries moved the global warming

issue into the arena of public policy