The History of English

The History of English

School Research Paper


Jakoubson Julia

Grade: 9 A

School 9

Teacher Gorbacheva M.V.

Kolomna 2003.




I. Old English...3-17

a). Celtic Tribes3-4

b). The Romans4-10

c). Germanic Tribes.10-15

d). The Norman French..15-16

II. Middle English....16-19

III. Mordent English...20-22


List of Literature..26



Why do people all over the world learn foreign languages? Perhaps because

the world is getting smaller, in a way: nations are more closely linked

with each other than ever before, companies operate world-wide, scientists

of different nationalities co-operate, and tourists travel practically

everywhere. The ability to communicate with people from other countries is

getting more and more important. And learning foreign languages broadens

your horizons, too!

Before learners of a foreign language are able to communicate, they have to

acquire many skills. They must learn to produce unfamiliar sounds. They

must build up a vocabulary. They must learn grammar rules and how to use

them. And, last but not least, they must develop listening, speaking,

reading and writing skills and learn how to react in a variety of


All people like to travel. Some travel around their own country, others

travel abroad. Some like to travel into the future, others prefer to travel

into the past. While I was working out my research paper and reading many

books on English history, I had an exciting trip into a remote past. It was

a fantastical journey our Imaginary Time Machine and a Magic Wand. The Time

Machine took me into the depth of the centuries, into the very early

history of Britain. I waved the Magic Wand and the words began to talk,

they disclosed to me their mysteries, I discovered secrets hidden in

familiar things. In other words, you will be a witness of making of


I. Old English. (450-1100)

a). Celtic tribes.

Make a first turn of the Time Machine and you will find yourself on the

British Isles in the time of the ancient inhabitants, the Celts. The Celts

were natives of the British Isles long before the English. The Celts had

their language, which is still spoken by the people living in the part of

Britain known as Wales. And though many changes happened on the British

Isles, some Celtic words are still used in the English language.

Two thousand years ago there was an Iron Age Celtic culture throughout the

British Isles. It seems that the Celts, who had been arriving from Europe

from the eighth century BC onwards, intermingled with the peoples who were

already there. We know that religious sites that had been built long before

the arrival of the Celts continued to be used in the Celtic period.

For people in Britain today, the chief significance of the prehistoric

period (for which no written records exist) is its sense of mystery. This

sense finds its focus most easily in the astonishing monumental

architecture of this period, the remains of which exist throughout the

country. Wiltshire, in south-western England, has two spectacular examples:

Silbury Hill, the largest burial mound in Europe, and Stonehenge. Such

places have a special importance for anyone interested in the cultural and

religious practices of prehistoric Britain. We know very little about these

practices, but there are some organizations today (for example, the Order

of Bards, Ovates and Druids a small group of eccentric intellectuals and

mystics) who base their beliefs on them.

The Celts preserved their language in some parts of Britain, but they did

not add many words to the English vocabulary. Those, that are in use now,

are mostly place-names: names of regions, towns, rivers. The Celts had a

number of similar words to name rivers, like: Exe, Esk, Usk. All of them

come from a word meaning water (uisge). Later this word was used to name a

strong alcoholic drink made from barley or rye. It was first called water

of life. The word changed its from and pronunciation, and today at

restaurants in the West one can see on the menu among other spirits whisky,

a Celtic word formerly meaning water.

b). The Romans.

One more turn of our Time Machine and it took me into the 1st century of

our era. At that time Romans came into Britain, they ruled the country for

400 years. So, you can guess that many Latin words came later into the

English language through Celts, because, as you know, Romans spoke Latin.

The Roman province of Britannia most of present-day England and Wales. The

Romans imposed their own way of life and culture, making use of the

existing Celtic aristocracy to govern and encouraging this ruling class to

adopt Roman dress and Roman language. The Romans never went to Ireland and

exerted an influence, without actually governing there, over only the

southern part of Scotland. It was during this time that a Celtic tribe

called the Scots migrated from Ireland to Scotland, where they became

allies of the Picts (another Celtic tribe) and opponents of the Romans.

This division of the Celts into those who experienced Roman rule (the

Britons in England and Wales) and those who did not (the Gaels in Ireland

and Scotland) may help to explain the development of two distinct branches

of the Celtic group of languages.

The remarkable thing about the Romans is that, despite their long

occupation of Britain, they left very little behind. To many other parts of

Europe they bequeathed a system of law and administration which forms the

basis of the modern system and a language which developed into the modern

Romance family of languages. In Britain, they left neither. Moreover, most

of their villas, baths and temples, their impressive network of roads, and

the cities they founded, including Londinium (London), were soon destroyed

or fell into disrepair. Almost the only lasting reminder of their presence

are place-names like Chester, Lancaster and Gloucester, which include

variants of the Roman word castra (a military camp).

Roman rule lasted for 4 centuries. There are many things in Britain today

to remind of the Romans: wells, roads, walls.

To defend their province the Romans stationed their legions in Britain.

Straight roads were built so that the legions might march quickly. Whenever

they were needed, to any part of the country. These roads were made of

several layers of stones, lime, mortar and gravel. They were made so well

that they lasted a long time and still exist today. Thomas Hardy dedicated

his poem to Roman roads. Here is the beginning.


The Roman road runs straight and bare

As the pale parting line in hair

Across the health. And thoughtful men

Contrast its days of now and then,

And delve, and measure, and compare,

Visioning on the vacant air

Helmed legionaries who proudly rear

The eagle as they pace again the Roman road

One of the roads has a name KATLING STREET. It is a great Roman road

extending east and west across Britain. Beginning at Dover, it ran through

Canterbury to London, thence through St.Albans, Dunstable, along the

boundary of Leicester and Warwick to Wroxeter on the Severn. The origin of

the name is not known and there are several other sections of the road so

called. In the late 9th century it became the boundary between English and

Danish territory.

To guard their province against the Picts and Scots who lived in the hills

of Scotland the Romans built a high wall, a military barrier seventy-three

miles long. It was called Hadrians Wall because it was built by command

of the Emperor Hadrian. Long stretches of HADRIANS WALL have remained to

this day.

In the capital of Britain you can see the fragments of the old London wall

built by the Romans.

What really happened in AD 61? In AD 61 the king of the Celtic tribe Iceni

died. Before he died he had named Roman Emperor Nero as his heir. He hoped

that this would put his family and kingdom under the Emperors protection.

But the result was the exact opposite of his hopes. His kingdom was

plundered by centurions, his private property was taken away, his widow

Boadicea was flogged, his daughters were deprived of any rights, his

relatives were turned into slaves. Boadiceas tribe rose to rebellion.

Boadicea stood at the head of a numerous army. More than 70,000 Romans were

killed during the revolt. But the Britons had little chance against an

experienced, well-armed Roman army. The rising was crushed, Boadicea took

poison to avoid capture.

Her monument on the Thames Embankment opposite Big Ben remind people of her

harsh cry: Liberty of death which has echoed down the ages.

Some of the English words relating to meals are of Latin origin, they were

borrowed from the Romans in ancient times. The Romans in the period of

their flourishing and expansion came into contact with the Germanic tribes,

or the Teutons, who later moved to Britain and formed there the English

nation. The Romans were a race with higher civilization than the Teutons

whom they considered barbarians. They taught the Teutons many useful things

and gave them very important words that the forefathers of the English

brought with them to Britain and that remained in the English language up

to now. Kitchen and table are Latin words borrowed in those far-off days,

that show a revolution in culinary arrangements; dish, kettle and cup also

became known to the Teutons at that time.

The early words of Latin origin give us a dim picture of Roman trades

traveling with their mules and asses the paved roads or the German

provinces, their chests and boxes and wine-sacks full of goods that they

profitably bargained with the primitive ancestors of the nowadays English.

Wine was one of the first items of trade between the Romans and the

Teutons. Thats how this word came into use.

The Teutons knew only one fruit apple, they did not grow fruit trees or

cultivated gardens, but they seem to have been eager to learn, for they

borrowed pear, plum, cherry.

The Teutons were an agricultural people, under the influence of the Romans

they began to grow beet, onion.

Milk was one of the main kinds of food with the Teutons, but the Romans

taught them methods of making cheese and butter for milk.

Among other culinary refinements that came to the Teutons from the Romans

are spices: pepper, mint.

Judging by the Latin borrowings of that period the ancestors of English

were very much impressed by Roman food, werent they?

The word calendar came to us from Latin. In the Latin there was a word

calendarium. It meant a record-book. Money-lenders kept a special book,

in which they recorded to whom they lent money and how much interest they

will get. This book was called calendarium because interest was paid on

the Calends. By the Calends the Romans named the first day of each month.

Time passed, the old meaning was forgotten. Calendar began to mean the

record of days, weeks, months within a year.

This is a story of the word calendar. But the story of how a calendar was

made is still more interesting indeed. We know that a calendar provides an

easy way to place a day within the week, month or year. But it is not easy

to make a calendar. The trouble is that the length of a year is determined

by the length of time the earth takes to revolve once on its own axis. But

the earth does not take an equal number of days to complete its year. It

needs 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 46 seconds. Obviously you cannot

divide a day of 24 hours into that. And the problem is further complicated

because the month is determined by the length of time it takes the moon to

go around the earth, which is 29 days into 365 days, minus 11 minutes

and 14 seconds. The result is that most calendars were messes.

The English got their calendar from the Romans. But at first the Romans had

a very bad calendar. They had ten month of varying length, and then they

added enough days at the end to make the year right. Besides the

politicians changed the length of the months as they wished. They could

change the length of the month to keep themselves in office longer and to

leave less time for their opponents. I cant imagine that somebody will

reduce June, July, August to two weeks each, and will take away more than

half my summer vacation? Will you like that? Of course, not.

The calendar varied so much that by the time of Julius Caesar January came

in August.

Meanwhile a very good calendar had been worked out in Asia Minor and was in

use in Egypt. Julius Caesar, a great Roman emperor, changed it a little to

fit the Roman customs and introduced it in Rome. This calendar was called

after him the Julian Calendar. As a matter of fact, Caesar only gave the

orders; he had the advice of a Greek astronomer named Sosigenes. This

calendar worked well for hundred years. But it provided only for exact

figure of 365 days a year and an extra day in every four years, it did not

count minutes and seconds. So, once more, the calendar year was getting

farther and farther from the year of the earths revolution around the sun.

Then in 1582 another change of calendar took place. The Roman Pope Gregory

XII suppressed ten days in 1582 and started new calendar. The English

people adopted the Gregorian Calendar in 1752. And for a time all dates

were given two ways: one for the New Style, one for the Old Style.

Now nobody uses the Old Style any more, but of course the calendar is not

quite accurate yet. Still it will be a long time before we have to add or

subtract another day.

The year is divided into months and every month has its own name. Now wed

like to investigate how the names of months appeared. But first, lets

think of the word month itself.

A month is a measure of time. It is a very old word. It goes back to Indo-

European base. Long time ago people probably- had only three measures of

time - year, which was the four seasons; a day which was the period from

one sunrise to the next; and a month, which had the period from one moon to

the next.

So, the Indo-European base me- came into Old English, and became mona.

The word meant "a measure of time". Then it began to mean moon, since the

moon measured time. Later suffix "-th" was added to the end of the word;

the word "monath" meant the period of time which the moon measured. Still

later the English people dropped the "a" and called it "month.

And now, stories of the names of months. The Modem English names for the

months of the year all come from the Latin. But before the English people

adopted the Latin names they had their native names. And, in fact, in some

cases the native names are more interesting than the Latin ones.

The first month of the year is January. January is the month of Janus.

Janus was a Roman God of the beginning of things. Janus had two faces: on

the front and the back of the head. He could look backwards into the past

and forward to the beginning year. January is a right name for the first

month of the New Year, isn't it? On the New Year eve we always think of

what we have done in the past year and we are planning to do better in the

New Year.

Now, the Old English had its own name for January. It was Wulf-

Monath", which means month of wolves". To-day England is thickly

populated and a very civilized country and it is hard, to imagine that

their was a time when wolves roamed the island. In the cold of the deep

winter they would get so hungry they would come into the towns to look for

food, and so January was called the month of the wolves".

The name of February comes from the Latin februa - "purification". It

was a month when the ancient Romans had a festival of purification.

Before the English adopted the Latin name, they called this month

Sprate-Kale-Month. Kale is a cabbage plant, "sprote" means to sprout.

So, it was the month when cabbages sprout

March is a month of Mar's, the Roman God of war. March was the earliest

warm time of the year when the Romans could start a war. Before the time of

Julius Caesar the Roman year began with March which was then the first

month of the year.

The Old English name for March was "Hlyd-Monath", which means "the month

of noisy winds". March in Britain often comes with strong winds. By the

way, this explains the saying: "If March comes in like a lion, it will go

out like a lamb".

There are a few stories about the meaning of the name April! The most

spread one is a pretty story that the month was named from a Latin word

aperire" to open. It is a month when buds of trees and flowers begin

to open.

The English before they adopted the Latin names, called April "Easter-

Monath, the month of Easter.

May is named for the Roman goddess of growth and increase, Maia. She

was the Goddess of spring, because in spring everything was growing,

flourishing, increasing.

The English name is not so poetic. They called the month "Thrimilce",

which means something like to mi1k three times. In May the cows give so

much milk that the farmers had to milk them three times a day.

Month of "June" was so called after the Junius family of Rome, one of

the leading clans of ancient Rome. Besides, the Roman festival of Juno, the

Goddess of Moon, was celebrated on the first day of the month.

We think of June as the month of brides and roses, but to the Anglo-

Saxons it was "Sere-Monath", the dry month.

July is the month of Julius Caesar. The month began to be called that

in the year when Julius Caesar was killed.

The English called July Maed-Monath, meadow month, because the

meadows are in bloom in July.

Now, comes August. This month was once called sexillis, as it was

the sixth month from March, with which, as you remember, the year once

opened. It was then changed into August in honour of the Roman emperor

Augustus Caesar, the nephew of Julius Caesar. This man was chosen by Julius

Caesar as his heir, he took the name Caesar, and was given the title

Augustus by the Roman Senate. This month was a lucky Month for Augustus

Caesar. By the way, Augustus refused to have fewer days in his month of

August than there were in the month of July. So he borrowed a day from

February and added it to August; that is why August has 31 days.

The Old English name for August was "Wead-Monath", the month of weeds.

You know, the Old English word "weed" meant vegetation in generale.

September, October, November and December are just "seventh",

"eighth", "ninth" and "tenth" months of the year. You remember that before

the Romans changed their calendar, March was the first month.

The English had more descriptive names for these month. September was

called "Harfest-Monath", "the harvest month". October was "Win-Monath",

"the wine month". November was "Bloo-Monath", because in November the

English sacrificed cattle to their gods. December was Mid-Winter-Monath,

because this month was the middle month of winter.

C). Germanic tribes.

At the beginning of the 5th century the Romans left the islands, they had

t save their own country from barbarians. If you want to know what events

followed after that, turn on the Time Machine again. So, here we are, in

the 5th century, This is the time of the birth of the English language. he

Germanic tribes of Angles, Sxns and Jutes invaded th misty fertile

island. Some of the native Britons were killed, mn others fled from the

invaders "s from fire" into the hill parts of the country. Angls, Saxons

nd Jutes spread all over the fertile lnds of the Isles. Gradually th

bm one nation - English. They developed one language - English. As

historians write, "th English language arrived in Britain on the point of

sword"! The l f that tim of th history r called ng1-Sns,

their language is ld English r Ang1-Saxon as well.

h next destination f ur im hin is the 7th century, when

Christinity was introducd in Britain, monasteries with shools nd

libraries were set u all ver th untry. h English language was

considerably enriched b the Latin wods.

Now, with the help of the im hin we'll fly over into the 8th ntu.

t this time the ancient Scandinavians, clled the Vikings, began to id

Britin. h Vikings continued thir wars with the English until the tim

the Ang1-Saxn king Alfred th Great made treaty with them nd gave them

rt of the country, that was lled "Danelaw". h Vikings settled

thr, married nglish wives nd bgan peaceful life on the territory of

Britain. Later military conflicts resumed again, but by the 11th century

they were over. The influence of these events n the English lnguag was

great, indeed. lrge number of Scandinavian words m int nglish from

"Danes" as th Ang1o-Saxons called all the Vikings.

One reason why Roman Britannia disappeared so quickly is probably that its

influence was largely confined to the towns. In the countryside, where most

people lived, farming methods had remained unchanged and Celtic speech

continued to be dominant.

The Roman occupation had been a matter of colonial control rather than

large-scale settlement. But, during the fifth century, a number of tribes

from the north-western European mainland invaded and settled in large

numbers. Two of these tribes were the Angles and the Saxons. These Anglo-

Saxons soon had the south-east of the country in their grasp. In the west

of the country their advance was temporarily halted by an army of Celtic

Britons under the command of the legendary King Arthur. Nevertheless, by

the end of the sixth century, they and their way of life predominated in

nearly all of England and in parts of southern Scotland. The Celtic Britons

were either Saxonized or driven westwards, where their culture and language

survived in south-west Scotland, Wales and Cornwall.

The Anglo-Saxons had little use for towns and cities. But they had a great

effect on the countryside, where they introduced new farming methods and

founded the thousands of self-sufficient villages which formed the basis of

English society for the next thousand or so years.

The Anglo-Saxons were pagan when they came to Britain. Christianity spread

throughout Britain from two different directions during the sixth and

seventh centuries. It came directly from Rome when St Augustine arrived in

597 and established his headquarters at Canterbury in the south-east of

England. It had already been introduced into Scotland and northern England

from Ireland, which had become Christian more than 150 years earlier.

Although Roman Christianity eventually took over the whole of the British

Isles, the Celtic model persisted in Scotland and Ireland for several

hundred years. It was less centrally organized, and had less need for a

strong monarchy to support it. This partly explains why both secular and

religious power in these two countries continued to be both more locally

based and less secure than it was elsewhere in Britain throughout the

medieval period.

Britain experience another wave of Germanic invasions in the 8th century.

These invaders, known as Vikings, Horsemen or Danes, came from Scandinavia.

In the ninth century they conquered and settled the extreme north and west

of Scotland, and also some coastal regions of Ireland. Their conquest of

England was halted when they were defeated by King Alfred of the Saxon

kingdom of Wessex. This resulted in an agreement which divided England

between Wessex, in the south and west, and the Danelaw in the north and


However, the cultural differences between Anglo-Saxons and Danes were

comparatively small. They led roughly the same way of life and spoke two

varieties of the same Germanic tongue (which combined to form the basis of

modern English). Moreover, the Danes soon converted to Christianity. These

similarities made political unification easier, and by the end of the 10th

century England was one kingdom with a Germanic culture throughout.

Most of modern-day Scotland was also united by this time, at least in name,

in a Gaelic kingdom.

Paopla in Anglo-Saxon times. Living uncomfortably close to the natural

world, were wall aware that though creation is inarticulate it is animate,

and that every created thing, every with, had its own personality.

The riddle is a sophisticated and harmless for of invocation by imitation:

the essence of it is that the poet, by an act of imaginative identification

assumes the personality of some crested thing - an animal, a plant, a

natural force.

The specialists consider that they know not enough about The Exeter Book

collection of riddles. Ridding was certainly a popular pastime among the

Anglo-Saxons, especially in the monasteries, and there are extant

collections (in Latin, of course,) from the pens of Aldhelm, Bishop of

Sherborne, Tatwin, Archbishop of Canterbury and others.

The provenance and genesis of the collection are unknown, and from internal

evidence one can only draw the modest conclusion that the ninety-five

riddles were not written by one man.

In English a student and the little black circle in the center of the eye

are both called pupils? And the connection between them is a doll. Both

the words came into the English language through French from the Latin. In

Latin there was a word pupa a girl, and pupus a boy. When the

Latin ending illa was added to pupa or pupus, the word meant a

little girl or a little boy. Since little girls and little boys went to

school, they became pupils.

But pupilla, a little girl, also meant a doll. It is easy to understand

why, isnt it? Now, if you look into the pupil of someones eye when the

light is just right, you can see your reflection. Your figure, by the way,

is very, very small like a tiny doll. The Romans named the black circle in

the eye pupilla because of the doll they could see there. And the word

came into the English as pupil as well. And thus, we have in the English

language two words that are spelt the same and have the same origin, but

mean different things: pupil a student, and pupil a black circle in

the center of your eye.

Professor casts a quick glance at the wall and noticed a map there. This

map is made of paper. But the word itself meant cloth once. This word came

into English from Latin, the Latin mappa was cloth. First maps were drawn

on fabrics. In Latin the combination of the words appeared: mappa mundi

cloth of the word. It was the first representation of the world as a

drawing on the cloth. Later maps began to be made of paper, but the word


By another route the same word came into English for the second time. In

Late Latin this word was corrupted into nappa, and later, through French,

it entered the English language with the new meaning of napkin.

When a teacher asks you a question. She expects you will give a correct

answer. Answer is a very strange word. Its spelling makes no sense until

you know its origin. This is a very old word. In Old English the noun was

andswaru and the verb andswearing. So, you see, it consisted of two

parts: and and swear. The word and at that time meant against; swear meant

to give a solemn oath. In the youth of the English language andswaru was

a solemn oath made against an accusation. A man had to pronounce a solemn

in reply to an accusation, to prove that it is wrong. In the course of

historical development the word lost its solemnity and it means now a

reply, to reply. Any little child answer you back today.

Professor History remarks, I see that some of you write with a ballpoint

pen, others with a pencil, and there are some who write with a fountain

pen. So, you cant do without ink, after all. A simple three-letter word

ink comes from a nine-letter ancestor that meant a branding iron. And now a

few steps away from the skill of writing towards the skill of healing

wounds. When we have a wound we cauterize it, we burn it with heat or with

a chemical in order to close it and prevent it from becoming infected. The

ancient Greeks used to cauterize a wound as we do, and the grandparent word

of cauterize is kauterion, a branding iron. The Greek not only sealed

wounds with heat, but they used much the same process in art for sealing

fast the colours of their painting. It was customary then to use wax

colours fixed with heat or, as they expressed it, encauston, burned in. In

Latin this word changed to encaustum, and it became the name for a kind of

purple ink that the emperors used when they signed their official

documents. In Old French encaustum became enque. English adopted the word

as enke or inke, that is how today we have our ink, coloured liquid used

for writing or printing.

The start of spoken language is buried in mystery and in a tangle of

theories, Professor History begins his lecture. The history of written

language also disappears in the jungles, in the deserts and far fields of

unrecorded time. But at least the words that have to do with writing tell

us much about the early beginning of the art and the objects that were used

to record the written symbols.

The word write was spelled writan in Old English. It first meant to

scratch, and it is exactly what the primitives did on their birch-bark or

shingles with sharp stones and others pointed instruments. In the more

sophisticated lands that surrounded the Mediterranean the papyrus plant was

used instead of the bark of the trees; as you already know, that gave us

the word paper.

Pen with which we write now, in its Latin form penna, meant a feather and

in some ancient collections you can still see quill pens. And pencil that

we hold inherits its name from the Latin penicillum, meaning a little tail,

and this refers to the time when writing was done with a tiny brush that

looked indeed like a little tail.

The term letter designating a written symbol, a letter of the alphabet is

thought to be relative to the Latin word linere, to smear, to leave a dirty

mark on some surface. Isnt it a good description of some of the early


But what is written should be read. In read we have an odd little word,

from the Old English raedan, which meant first to guess, to discern. And

again it is just what you had to do to interpret what was scratched on

wooden shingles. Anything that had to be interpreted was called a raedels.

Later on people began to think that the word raedels was a plural because

of the s on the end. A new singular, raedel was formed and here is the

ancestor of our word riddle. Finally the word read took on its modern

meaning: if you can read, you have the ability to look at and understand

what is written.

Of course the basis of all writing is language. But it is first of all, a

spoken activity, and hence this noun is derived from a word referring to

the organ of speech primarily involved. In this case it is the French word

language, which goes back to the Latin lingua, tongue. The English, though,

retained their native word to name that soft movable part inside your mouth

whish you see for tasting and licking and for speaking, a tongue.

Sometimes you may hear the word tongue used in the meaning of language, but

it is an old-fashioned and literary use.

If you want to read what is written in a foreign language, you need a

dictionary. The term dictionary comes from the Latin word dictio, from

dico, say or speak. A dictionary is really a record of what people say, of

the pronunciation, spellings, and meanings that they give to words.

In Old English there was a different word with which the Englishmen called

bread, it was half. But then as a result of the Vikings invasion and

Scandinavian influence on the English language a new word of the same

meaning entered the English vocabulary from Scandinavian: cake. Since the

English had already their own word (half), they started to use the word

cake for a special type of bread. First it referred to a small loaf of

bread of flat and round shape. From the 15th century it began to mean sweet

food, as it does now.

To the Scandinavians, living in Britain, called their bread by the word

brauth. The English had a similar word bread meaning a lump, a piece of

bread. Under the influence of the Scandinavian language the word bread

widened its meaning and began to mean bread in general, while the word loaf

(from Old English half) narrowed its meaning, now it is a large lump of

bread which we slice before eating.

The Great Englishman Caxton, who introduced printing in Britain in 1476,

wrote in a preface to one of the books about a funny episode with egg. The

thing is that in Old English the word egg had a different form which

spelled as ey in Middle English; its plural form was eyren. And again the

Scandinavians brought with them to Britain their word egg. It first spread

in the northern English dialects, the southerners did not know it and used

their native word.

Caxton tells the readers that once English merchants from the northern

regions were sailing down the Thames, bound for the Netherlands. There was

no wind and they landed at a small southern village. The merchants decided

to buy some food. They came to a house and one of them asked a woman if she

could sell them eggs. The woman answered that she did not understand him

because she did not know French. The merchant became very angry and said

that he did not speak French either. Then another merchant helped. He said

they wanted eyren, the woman understood him and brought them eggs.

For rather a long period of time two words existed in Britain: a native

English word eyren was used in the South, and the Scandinavian borrow eggs

in the North. The Scandinavian word has won after, as you can see.

D). The Norman French.

I made another excursion into the past. The Time hin has rried me

into the 11th century, into the year of 1066. An wful picture ns before

my eyes: great battle at Hastings, the English king rold is killed, the

English are defeated, the Norman invaders have won victory. he Normans

m frm across the British hannl, from the part of France called

Normandy. h conquered the English under the head of their leader, Duke

William, who later got the name of William the Conqueror. h Normans

brought into Britain not n1 their king, but their French language as

well. So it xplins why there are so many French words in the English


The successful Norman invasion of England in 1066 brought Britain into the

mainstream of western European culture. Previously most links had been with

Scandinavia. Only in Scotland did this link survive; the western isles

(until the thirteenth century) and the northern islands (until the

fifteenth century) remaining under the control of Scandinavian kings.

Throughout this period the English kings also ruled over areas of land on

the continent were often at war with the French kings in disputes over


Unlike the Germanic invasions, the Norman invasion was small-scale. There

was no such thing as a Norman area of settlement. Instead, the Norman

soldiers who had been a part of the invading army were given the ownership

of land and of the people living on it. A strict feudal system was

imposed. Great nobles, or barons, were responsible directly to the king;

lesser lords, each owing a village, were directly responsible to a baron.

Under them were the peasants, tied by a strict system of mutual duties and

obligations to the local lord, and forbidden to travel without his

permission. The peasants were the English-speaking Saxons. The lords and

the barons were the French-speaking Normans. This was the beginning of the

English class system.

The existence of two words for the larger farm animals in modern English is

a result of the class divisions established by the Norman conquest. There

are the words for the living animals (e.g. cow, pig, sheep), which have

their origins in Anglo-Saxon, and the words for the meat from the animals

(e.g. beef, pork, mutton.), which have their origins in the French language

that the Normans brought to England. Only the Normans normally ate meat;

the poor Anglo-Saxon peasants did not!

The strong system of government which the Normans introduced meant that the

Anglo-Norman kingdom was easily the most powerful political force in

British Isles. Not surprisingly therefore, the authority of the English

monarch gradually extended to other parts of these islands in the next 250

years. But the end of the thirteenth century, a large part of eastern

Ireland was controlled by Anglo-Norman lords in the name of the English

king and the while of Wales was under his direct rule (at which time the

custom of naming the monarchs eldest son the Prince of Wales began).

Scotland managed to remain politically independent in the medieval period,

but was obliged to fight occasional wars to do so.

II. Middle English. (1100-1500)

The English which was used from about 1100 to about 1500 is called Middle

English. The cultural story of this period is different. Two hundred and

fifty years after the Norman Conquest, it was a Germanic language (Middle

English) and not the Norman (French) language which had become the dominant

one in all classes of society of England. Furthermore, it was the Anglo-

Saxon concept of common law, and not Roman law, which formed the basis of

the legal system.

Despite English rule, northern and central Wales was never settled in great

numbers by Saxon or Norman. As a result the (Celtic) Welsh language and

culture remained strong. Eisteddfods, national festivals of Welsh song and

poetry, continued throughout the medieval period and still take place

today. The Anglo-Norman lords of eastern Ireland remained loyal to the

English king but, despite laws to the contrary, mostly adopted the Gaelic

language and customs.

The political independence of Scotland did not prevent a gradual switch to

the English language and customs in the lowland (southern) part of the

country. First, the Anglo-Saxon element here was strengthened by the

arrival of many Saxon aristocrats fleeing the Norman conquest of England.

Second, the Celtic kings saw that the adoption of an Anglo-Norman style of

government would strengthen royal power. By the end of this period a

cultural split had developed between the lowlands, where the way of life

and language was similar to that in England, and the highlands, where

(Celtic) Gaelic culture and language prevailed and where, because of the

mountainous landscape, the authority of the king was hard to enforce.

It was in this period that Parliament began its gradual evolution into the

democratic body which is it today. The word parliament, which comes from

the French word parler (to speak), was first used in England in the

thirteenth century to describe an assembly of nobles called together by the

king. In 1295, the Model Parliament set the pattern for the future by

including elected representatives from urban and rural areas.

Many food names in English are French borrowings. After the Norman Conquest

under William the Conqueror (1066) French words began to enter the English

language increasing in number for more than tree centuries. Among them were

different names of dishes. The Norman barons brought to Britain their

professional cooks who showed to English their skill.

Learners of the English language notice that there is one name for a live

beast grazing in the field and another for the same beast when it is killed

and coked. The matter is that English peasants preserved Anglo-Saxon names

for the animals they used to bring to Norman castles to sell. But the

dishes made of the meat got French names. That is why now we have native

English names of animals: ox, cow, calf, sheep, swine, and French names of

meals from whose meat they are cooked: beef, veal, mutton, pork. (By the

way lamb is an exception, it is a native Anglo-Saxon word). A historian

writes that an English peasant who had spent a hard day tending his oxen,

calves, sheep and swine probably saw little enough of the beef, veal,

mutton and pork, which were gobbled at night by his Norman masters.

The French enriched English vocabulary with such food words as bacon,

sausage, gravy; then: toast, biscuit, cream, sugar. They taught the English

to have for dessert such fruits as: fig, grape, orange, lemon, pomegranate,

peach and the names of these fruits became known to the English due the

French. The English learned from them how to make pastry, tart, jelly,

treacle. From the French the English came to know about mustard and

vinegard. The English borrowed from the French verbs to describe various

culinary processes: to boil, to roast, to stew, to fry.

One famous English linguist exclaimed: It is melancholy to think what the

English dinner would have been like, had there been no Norman Conquest!

The period of Middle English is the time of the fast development of English

literature. The greatest poet of the 14th century was Geoffrey Chaucer. He

is often called the father of English poetry, although, as we know, there

were many English poets before him. As we should expect, the language had

changed a great deal in the seven hundred years since the time Beowulf and

it is much easier to read Chaucer than to read anything written in Old

English. Here are the opening lines of The Canterbury Tales (about 1387),

his greatest work:

Whan that Aprille with his shoures swote

The droghte of Marche hath perced to the rote

When April with his sweet showers has stuck to the roots the

dryness of March

There are five main beats in each line, and the reader will notice that

rhyme has taken the place of Old English alliteration. Chaucer was a well-

educated man who read Latin, and studied French and Italian poetry; but he

was not interested only in books. He traveled and made good use of his

eyes; and the people whom he describes are just like living people.

The Canterbury Tales total altogether about 17,000 lines about half of

Chaucers literary production. A party of pilgrims agree to tell stories to

pass the time on their journey from London to Canterbury with its great

church and the grave of Thomas a Becket. There are more than twenty of

these stories, mostly in verse, and in the stories we get to know the

pilgrims themselves. Most of them, like the merchant, the lawyer, the cook,

the sailor, the ploughman, and the miller, are ordinary people, but each of

them can be recognized as a real person with his or her own character. One

of the most enjoyable characters, for example, is the Wife of Bath. By the

time she tells her story we know her as a woman of very strong opinions who

believes firmly in marriage (she has had five husbands, one after the

other) and equally firmly in the need to manage husbands strictly. In her

story one of King Arthurs knights must give within a year the correct

answer to the question What do women love most? in order to save his

life. An ugly old which knows the answer (to rule) and agrees to tell him

if he marries her. At last he agrees, and at the marriage she becomes young

again and beautiful.

A good deal of Middle English prose is religious. The Ancren Riwle teaches

proper rules of life for anchoresses (religious women) how they ought to

dress, what work they may do, when they ought not to speak, and so on. It

was probably written in the thirteenth century. Another work, The Form of

Perfect Living, was written by richard rolle with the same sort of aim. His

prose style has been highly praised, and his work is important in the

history of our prose.

john wycliffe, a priest, attacked many of the religious ideas of his time.

He was at Oxford, but had to leave because his attacks on the Church could

no longer be borne. One of his beliefs was that anyone who wanted to read

the Bible ought to be allowed to do so;

but how could this be done by uneducated people when the Bible was in

Latin? Some parts had indeed been put into Old English long ago, but

Wycliffe arranged the production of the whole Bible in English. He himself

translated part of it. There were two translations ! 1382 and 1388), of

which the second is the better.

It is surprising that Wycliffe was not burnt alive for his attacks on

religious practices. After he was dead and buried, his bones were dug up

again and thrown into a stream which flows into the River Avon (which

itself flows into the River Severn):

The Avon to the Severn runs,

The Severn to the sea,

And Wycliffe's dust shall spread abroad,

Wide as the waters be.

An important Middle English prose work, Morte D'Arthur [= Arthur's Death],

was written by sir thomas malory. Even for the violent years just before

and during the Wars of the Roses, Malory was a violent character. He was

several times in prison, and it has been suggested that he wrote at least

part of Morte D'Arthur there to pass the time.

Malory wrote eight separate tales of King Arthur and his knights but when

Caxton printed the book in 1485 (after Malory's death) he joined them into

one long story. Caxton's was the only copy of Malory's work that we had

until, quite recently f1933-4;. a handwritten copy of it was found in

Winchester College.

The stories of Arthur and his knights have attracted many British and other

writers. Arthur is a shadowy figure of the past. but probably really lived.

Many tales gathered round him and his knights. One of the main subjects was

the search for the cup used by Christ at the East Supper. (This cup is

known as The Holy Grail. Another subject was Arthur's battles against his

enemies, including the Romans. Malory's fine prose can tell a direct story

well, but can also express deep feelings in musical sentences. Here is part

of the book in modern form. King Arthur is badly wounded:

Then Sir Bedivere took the king on his back and so went with him to the

water's edge. And when they were there. close by the bank, there came a

little ship with many beautiful ladies in it; and among them all there was

a queen. And they all had black head-dresses, and all wept and cried when

they saw King Arthur.

III. Modern English (1500-to the present day)

By the beginning of 20th century, Britain was no longer the world's richest

country. Perhaps this caused Victorian confidence in gradual reform to

weaken. Whatever the reason, the first twenty years of the century were a

period of extremism in Britain. The Suffragettes, women demanding the right

to vote, were prepared both to damage property and to die for their

beliefs; the problem of Ulster in the north of Ireland led to a situation

in which some sections of the army appeared ready to disobey the

government; and the government's introduction of new types and levels of

taxation was opposed so absolutely by the House of Lords that even

Parliament, the foundation of the political system, seemed to have an

uncertain future in its traditional form. But by the end of the First World

War, two of these issues had been resolved to most people's satisfaction

(the Irish problem remained) and the rather un-British climate of extremism

died out.

The significant changes that have taken place in this century are dealt

with elsewhere in this book. Just one thing should be noted here. It was

from the beginning of this century that the urban working class (the

majority of the population) finally began to make its voice heard. In

Parliament, the Labour party gradually replaced the Liberals (the

'descendants' of the Whigs) as the main opposition to the Conservatives

(the 'descendants' of the Tories). In addition, trade unions managed to

organize themselves. In 1926, they were powerful enough to hold a General

Strike, and from the 1930s until the 1980s the Trades Union Congress (see

chapter 14) was probably the single most powerful political force outside

the institutions of government and Parliament.

From about 1600, explorers, adventurers, settlers and soldiers went out

from Britain to found settlements and colonies overseas. They took the

English language with them. At the height of their power, during the 19th

century, the British could claim that the sun never set on their Empire.

Today almost all the countries of the old Empire have become independent.

However, most of them are now members of the Commonwealth of Nations, and

English continues to be an important language for them.

After the Second World War the United States became what Britain had been

in the 19th century: politically and economically one of the most powerful

nations in the world. As its power spread, so the English language spread.

Five hundred years ago they didn't speak English in North America. The

American Indians had their own languages. So did the Inuit (often called

'Eskimos') and Aleuts in Canada. So did the Aborigines in Australia, and

the Maoris in New Zealand.

The English arrived and set up their colonies. And then other people came

from all over the world, bringing many different languages and cultures.

The USA has the biggest mixture of all: it is often called a 'melting pot'

of cultures. In 1619 a small ship arrived in Jamestown, Virginia, with

twenty slaves from Africa. For over two hundred years, the Americans

imported, bought and sold African slaves. Today there are over 29 million

black Americans living in the USA.

In 1848 the population of the United States was still very small. Then two

important things happened: they discovered gold in California and a new

law, the Homestead Act, gave free land to farmers. Suddenly millions of

immigrants came to America, 'The Land of Opportunity'.

At first they were English, Irish, German and Scandinavian. Then Italians,

Jews, Chinese, Japanese, Russians and Poles came. Most immigrants came

because economic conditions at home were bad. But there were also other

problems in Europe. About three million Jews came to the USA between 1880

and 1910 because of religious persecution in Russia and other countries.

Today the USA is still much richer than most of its neighbors. Its most

recent new citizens are many Spanish-speaking people from Puerto Rico,

Mexico and South America.

The population of Britain is only about 58 million. But throughout the

world English is spoken by over 700 million people.

About 350 million people speak English as their first language in 12

countries such as Britain, the USA. Canada Australia. New Zealand. South


About 300 million use English as a second or official language in over 60

countries, for example, in India. They usually use it when doing business,

or when completing official documents and forms.

It is estimated that at least 100 million people throughout the world use

English fluently as a foreign language.

There are over 3.000 languages in the world. So why has English become so

widely spoken?

Today the English language is almost the same all over the world. You can

tell a person's nationality from their accent - Australian, Scottish,

Canadian and so on. But the words are more or less international.

It's strange that the differences in Britain itself are greater than those

between Britain and other English-speaking countries. For a Londoner, it's

easy to understand an American, but quite difficult to understand the

dialect of Newcastle in the North of England!

But not many people speak dialects in Britain these days. A hundred years

ago (before radio and television) all ordinary working people did. In Emily

Bronte's book Wuthering Heights the old man Joseph speaks Yorkshire


Take these in tuh t'maister, lad. Un' bide theare. Aw's gang up tuh my awn

rahm. (Take these in to the master, boy. And stay there. I'm going up to

my own room.)

Don't worry. Joseph doesn't say very much in the book - the rest is in

normal English!

In a country like New Zealand, English is the first language. In fact its

the only language for most people. About 100,000 Maoris have their own

language, but they also speak English. Most of this book is about countries

where English is the first language Canada, Ireland, the USA and so on.

But in more than sixty other countries English is a second language. The

government, business and universities use it. Some of the people, but not

all, speak it well and use it for certain parts of their lives.

IV. Conclusion.

I enjoy learning English, it is really great' I like to learn new words, to

look up in the dictionary their meanings. English grammar is difficult, but

I try hard to understand it, to learn the rules, to put them into practice.

I think it is very interesting to read English books, newspapers,

magazines. I came to know a lot of exciting facts and new things. It is

like a new world where you can enter if you know the language.

English folklore is very rich. I believe, it is good to know English

proverbs and tongue-twisters, English rhymes and limericks. English sayings

and songs.

When you learn tongue-twisters, it helps you to improve your


I know quite a number of them. Here is a good one:

Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled pepper:

A peck of pickled pepper Peter Piper picked:

If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled pepper

Where's the peck of pickled pepper Peter Piper picked!

This one is my favorite:

A thatcher of Thatchwood went to Thatchet a-thatching

Did a thatcher of Thatchwood go to Thatchet a-thatching?

If a thatchcr of Thatchwood went to Thatchet a-thatching

Where's the thatching the thatcher of Thatchwood has thatched?

While writing my research paper report I had to read a lot of books on

English History I came to know a lot of English folk songs, they are simple

and nice. Some of them help me to learn words. Solomon Grundy is a folk

song it helps you to remember the days of the week. It is a sad song/ but 1

the same its funny too.

Solomon Grundy

Born on Monday

Christened on Tuesday

Married on Wednesday

Ill on Thursday

Worse on Friday

Died on Saturday

Buried on Sunday

This is the end

Of poor old Solomon Grundy.

English proverbs are useful in many situations. Here are a few examples.

When there's a will, there's a way. Or: Alls well that ends well. No sweet

without sweat. Lend money and lose a friend. East or West, home is best.

English jokes are very funny. They often laugh at nationalities of the

British Isles. Here is a typical one. An Englishman, a Scotsman and an

Irishman were alone on a desert island. One day the Englishman found an

old bottle. He broke it and out came a genie. The genie said: I'll give

you and your friends three wishes. But choose well, because you may have

only one wish each My wish is quite simple, - said the Englishman, -

I wish to be taken home. Your wish is my command, - said the genie,

and the Englishman disappeared. Yes, I'd like the same, - said the

Scotsman. And in a minute he was at home as well. Then the genie turned to

the Irishman. And what about you? What's your wish? The Irishman

thought a little and then said: I'm very lonely without my friends. I

wish they were back here with me.

English literature has very rich traditions. English poetry is well known

in the world best Russian poets translated English poetry into Russian. But

of course, when you study English it's a pleasure to learn English poems in

the original. My favorite poem is If by R. Kipling. I think, he gives

very good advice for the young people in this poem.

If you can keep your head when all about you

Are loosing theirs and blaming it on you*

If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you,

But make allowance for their doubting too;

If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,

Or being lied about, don't deal in lies,

Or being hated, don't give way to hating,

And yet don't look too good, nor talk too wise:

If you can dream - and not make dreams your master:

If you can think - and not make thoughts your aim.

If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster

And treat those two imposters just the same.

You can bear to hear the truth you've spoken

Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools,

Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken,

And stoop and build them up with worn-out tools:

If you can make one heap of all your winnings

And risk it on one turn of pitch and toss,

And lose, and start again at your beginning

And never breathe a word about your loss;

If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew

To serve your turn long after they are gone,

And so hold on when there is nothing in you

Except the will which says to them; Hold on!

If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue

Or walk with kings nor lose the common touch,

If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you,

If all men count with you, out non much;

If you can *ill the unforgiving minute

With sixty seconds worth of distance run.

Yours is the Earth and everything thats in it,

And which is more youll be a Man, my son!

Yes, to learn English is such a fun, indeed!!!

List of Literature

1. Speak Out 3/2001 pages 2-4 .

2. .., ..

3. Mark Farrell The World Of English England Longman 1995.

4. James ODriscoll Britain Oxford University England Press 1995.

5. Treasures Of Historical English ..

6. History And Mystery Of The English Words ..

7. G.C. Thorney An Outline Of English Literature England Longman 1984.


|OE |Gothic |Description; Position; |Examples |

| | |Pronunciation | |

|a |a |Short back vowel; Mainly in open |macian (to |

| | |syllables, when the following one|make), habban |

| | |contains a back vowel; English |(to have) |

| | |cup | |

| |ai |Long back [a] vowel; In any kind |stn (a stone),|

| | |of syllables; English star |htan (to call)|

| |a |Short back vowel; Met mainly in |dg (a day), |

| | |closed syllables, or in open |wter (water) |

| | |ones, if the next syllable | |

| | |contains a front vowel; English | |

| | |bad | |

| ' |, |Long back vowel; as Gothic |st ' lon |

| | |found only in some verbal forms, |(stolen), h ' |

| | |as Gothic is the result of the |lan (to cure) |

| | |so - called i - mutation; German | |

| | |za "hlen | |

|e |i, ai, a|Short front vowel; as Gothic i, |sengean (to |

| | |ai noticed only in some |sing) |

| | |infinitives, otherwise is result | |

| | |of the mutation of i; English bed| |

| | |Long front [e] vowel; resulted |dman (to |

| | |from the i - mutation of ; |judge) |

| | |German Meer | |

|i |i, ie |Short front vowel; can be either |bindan (to |

| | |stable or unstable, the unstable |bind), niht - |

| | |sound can interchange with ie and|nyht (a night) |

| | |y; English still | |

| |ie |Long front [i] vowel; also stable|wrtan (to |

| | |and unstable (mutating to ); |write), h - h|

| | |English steal |(they) |

|o |u, au |Short back vowel; English cost |coren (chosen) |

| |o |Long back [o] vowel; English |scc (divided) |

| | |store | |

|u |u, au |Short back vowel; used only when |curon (they |

| | |the next syllable contains |chose) |

| | |another back vowel; English book | |

| | |Long back [u] vowel; English |lcan (to look)|

| | |stool | |

|y |u |Short front vowel; i - mutation |gylden (golden)|

| | |of u; German fu" nf | |

| | |Long front [y] vowel; i - |ms (mice) |

| | |mutation of , German glu "hen | |

|a. |o |A special short sound met only |monn (a man) |

| | |before nasals in closed syllables| |

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