The history of Old English and its development


The history of Old English and its development

The history of Old English and its development.

In 409 AD the last Roman legion left British shores, and in fifty

years the Islands became a victim of invaders. Germanic tribes from

Southern Scandinavia and Northern Germany, pushed from their densely

populated homelands, looked for a new land to settle. At that time the

British Isles were inhabited by the Celts and remaining Roman colonists,

who failed to organize any resistance against Germanic intruders, and so

had to let them settle here. This is how the Old English language was born.

Celtic tribes crossed the Channel and starting to settle in Britain

already in the 7th century BC. The very word "Britain" seems to be the name

given by the pre-Celtic inhabitants of the island, accepted by first Indo-

Europeans. The Celts quickly spread over the island, and only in the north

still existed non-Indo-European peoples which are sometimes called "Picts"

(the name given by Romans). Picts lived in Scotland and on Shetland Islands

and represented the most ancient population of the Isles, the origin of

which is unknown. Picts do not seem to leave any features of their language

to Indo-European population of Britain - the famous Irish and Welsh initial

mutations of consonants can be the only sign of the substratum left by

unknown nations of Britain. At the time the Celts reached Britain they

spoke the common language, close to Gaulish in France. But later, when

Celtic tribes occupied Ireland, Northern England, Wales, their tongues were

divided according to tribal divisions. These languages will later become

Welsh, Irish Gaelic, Cornish, but from that time no signs remained, because

the Celts did not invent writing yet. Not much is left from Celtic

languages in English. Though many place names and names for rivers are

surely Celtic (like Usk - from Celtic *usce "water", or Avon - from *awin

"river"), the morphology and phonetics are untouched by the Celtic

influence. Some linguists state that the word down comes from Celtic *dn

"down"; other examples of Celtic influence in place names are tne

following:

cothair (a fortress) - Carnarvon

uisge (water) - Exe, Usk, Esk

dun, dum (a hill) - Dumbarton, Dumfries, Dunedin

llan (church) - Llandaff, Llandovery, Llandudno

coil (forest) - Kilbrook, Killiemore

kil (church) - Kilbride, Kilmacolm

ceann (cape) - Kebadre, Kingussie

inis (island) - Innisfail

inver (mountain) - Inverness, Inverurie

bail (house) - Ballantrae, Ballyshannon,

and, certainly, the word whiskey which means the same as Irish uisge

"water". But this borrowing took place much later.

In the 1st century AD first Roman colonists begin to penetrate in

Britain; Roman legions built roads, camps, founded towns and castles. But

still they did not manage to assimilate the Celts, maybe because they lived

apart from each other and did not mix. Tens of Latin words in Britain

together with many towns, places and hills named by Romans make up the

Roman heritage in the Old English. Such cities as Dorchester, Winchester,

Lancaster, words like camp, castra, many terms of the Christian religion

and several words denoting armaments were borrowed at that time by Britons,

and automatically were transferred into the Old English, or Anglo-Saxon

language already when there was no Romans in the country.

In 449 the legendary leaders of two Germanic tribes, Hengist and

Horsa, achieved British shores on their ships. The Anglo-Saxon conquest,

however, lasted for several centuries, and all this period Celtic

aborigines moved farther and farther to the west of the island until they

manage to fortify in mountainous Wales, in Corwall, and preserved their

kingdoms in Scotland. Germanic tribes killed Celtic population, destroyed

Celtic and former Roman towns and roads. In the 5th century such cities as

Durovern in Kent, Virocon, Trimontii, Camulodunum, were abandoned by the

population.

Angles settled around the present-day Noridge, and in Northern

England; Saxons, the most numerous of the tribes, occupied all Central

England, the south of the island and settled in London (Londinii at that

time). Jutes and Frises, who probably came to Britain a bit later, settled

on the island of White and in what is now Kent - the word Kent derives from

the name of the Celtic tribe Cantii. Soon all these tribes founded their

separate kingdoms, which was united after centuries of struggle only in 878

by Alfred, king of Wessex. Before that each of the tribes spoke its

language, they were similar to each other but had differences which later

became the dialectal peculiarities of Old English.

Now a little bit about the foreign influence in Old English. From the

6th century Christianity start activities in Britain, the Bible is

translated into Old English, and quite a lot of terms are borrowed from

Latin at that time: many bishops, missionaries and Pope's officials come

from Rome. The next group of foreign loanwords were taken from Scandinavian

dialects, after the Vikings occupied much of the country in the 9th - 11th

centuries. Scandinavian languages were close relatives with Old English, so

the mutual influence was strong enough to develop also the Old English

morphology, strengthening its analytic processes. Many words in the

language were either changed to sound more Scandinavian, or borrowed.

The Old English language, which has quite a lot of literature

monuments, came to the end after the Norman conquest in 1066. The new

period was called Middle English.

The Old English Substantive.

The substantive in Indo-European has always three main categories

which change its forms: the number, the case, the gender. It ias known that

the general trend of the Indo-European family is to decrease the number of

numbers, cases and genders from the Proto-Indo-European stage to modern

languages. Some groups are more conservative and therefore keep many forms,

preserving archaic language traits; some are more progressive and lose

forms or transform them very quickly. The Old English language, as well as

practically all Germanic tongues, is not conservative at all: it generated

quite a lot of analytic forms instead of older inflections, and lost many

other of them.

Of eight Proto-Indo-European cases, Old English keeps just four which

were inherited from the Common Germanic language. In fact, several of

original Indo-European noun cases were weak enough to be lost practically

in all branches of the family, coinciding with other, stronger cases. The

ablative case often was assimilated by the genitive (in Greek, Slavic,

Baltic, and Germanic), locative usually merged with dative (Italic, Celtic,

Greek), and so did the instrumental case. That is how four cases appeared

in Germanic and later in Old English - nominative, genitive, accusative and

dative. These four were the most ancient and therefore stable in the system

of the Indo-European morphology.

The problem of the Old English instrumental case is rather strange -

this case arises quite all of a sudden among Germanic tongues and in some

forms is used quite regularly (like in demonstrative pronouns). In Gothic

the traces of instrumental and locative though can be found, but are

considered as not more than relics. But the Old English must have

"recalled" this archaic instrumental, which existed, however, not for too

long and disappeared already in the 10th century, even before the Norman

conquest and transformation of the English language into its Middle stage.

As for other cases, here is a little pattern of their usage in the Old

English syntax.

1. Genitive - expresses the possessive menaing: whose? of what?

Also after the expression meaning full of , free of , worthy of ,

guilty of, etc.

2. Dative - expresses the object towards which the action is directed.

After the after the verbs like "say to smb", "send smb", "give to

smb"; "known to smb", "necessary for smth / smb", "close to smb",

"peculiar for smth".

Also in the expressions like from the enemy, against the wind, on the

shore.

3. Accusative - expresses the object immediately affected by the

action (what?), the direct object.

Three genders were strong enough, and only northern dialects could

sometimes lose their distinction. But in fact the lose of genders in Middle

English happened due to the drop of the case inflections, when words could

no longer be distinguished by its endings. As for the numbers, the Old

English noun completely lost the dual, which was preserved only in personal

pronouns (see later).

All Old English nouns were divided into strong and weak ones, the same

as verbs in Germanic. While the first had a branched declension, special

endings for different numbers and cases, the weak declension was

represented by nouns which were already starting to lose their declension

system. The majority of noun stems in Old English should be referred to the

strong type. Here are the tables for each stems with some comments - the

best way of explaining the grammar.

a-stems

Singular

Nom. stn (stone) scip (ship) bn (bone) reced (house) neten (ox)

Gen. stnes scipes bnes recedes

netenes

Dat. stne scipe bne recede

netene

Acc. stn scip bn reced

neten

Plural

Nom. stnas scipu bn reced

netenu

Gen. stna scipa bna receda

netena

Dat. stnum scipum bnum recedum netenum

Acc. stnas scipu bn reced

netenu

This type of stems derived from masculine and neuter noun o-stems in Proto-

Indo-European. First when I started studying Old English I was irritated

all the time because I couldn't get why normal Indo-European o-stems are

called a-stems in all books on Old English. I found it a silly and

unforgivable mistake until I understood that in Germanic the Indo-European

short o became a, and therefore the stem marker was also changed the same

way. So the first word here, stn, is masculine, the rest are neuter. The

only difference in declension is the plural nominative-accusative, where

neuter words lost their endings or have -u, while masculine preserved -as.

A little peculiarity of those words who have the sound [] in the stem and

say farewell to it in the plural:

Masculine Neuter

Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl.

N dg (day) dagas ft (vessel) fatu

G dges daga ftes fata

D dge dagum fte fatum

A dg dagas ft fatu

Examples of a-stems: earm (an arm), eorl, helm (a helmet), hring (a

ring), m (a mouth); neuter ones - dor (a gate), hof (a courtyard), geoc

(a yoke), word, dor (an animal), bearn (a child), gar (a year).

ja-stems

Singular

Masculine Neuter

N hrycg (back) here (army) ende (end) cynn (kind) rce (realm)

G hrycges heriges endes cynnes rces

D hrycge herige ende cynne rce

A hrycg here ende cynn rce

Plural

N hrycgeas herigeas endas cynn rciu

G hrycgea herigea enda cynna rcea

D hrycgium herigum endum cynnum rcium

A hrycgeas herigeas endas cynn rciu

Again the descendant of Indo-European jo-stem type, known only in

masculine and neuter. In fact it is a subbranch of o-stems, complicated by

the i before the ending: like Latin lupus and filius. Examples of this

type: masculine - wecg (a wedge), bcere (a scholar), fiscere (a fisher);

neuter - net, bed, wte (a punishment).

wa-stems

Singular Plural

Masc. Neut. Masc. Neut.

N bearu (wood) bealu (evil) bearwas bealu (-o)

G bearwes bealwes bearwa bealwa

D bearwe bealwe bearwum bealwum

A bearu (-o) bealu (-o) bearwas bealu (-o)

Just to mention. This is one more peculiarity of good old a-stems with the

touch of w in declension. Interesting that the majority of this kind of

stems make abstract nouns. Examples: masculine - snw (snow), aw (a

custom); neuter - searu (armour), trow (a tree), cnw (a knee)

-stems

Sg.

N swau (trace) fr (journey) tigol (brick)

G swae fre tigole

D swae fre tigole

A swae fre tigole

Pl.

N swaa fra tigola

G swaa fra tigola

D swaum frum tigolum

A swaa fra tigola

Another major group of Old English nouns consists only of feminine nouns.

Funny but in Indo-European they are called a-stems. But Germanic turned

vowels sometimes upside down, and this long a became long o. However,

practically no word of this type ends in -o, which was lost or transformed.

The special variants of -stems are jo- and wo-stems which have practically

the same declension but with the corresponding sounds between the root and

the ending.

Examples of -stems: caru (care), sceamu (shame), onswaru (worry), lufu

(love), lr (an instruction), sorg (sorrow), rg (a season), ides (a

woman).

Examples of j-stems: sibb (peace), ecg (a blade), secg (a sword), hild (a

fight), x (an axe).

Examples of w-stems: beadu (a battle), nearu (need), ls (a beam).

i-stems

Masc. Neut.

Sg.

N sige (victory) hyll (hill) sife (sieve)

G siges hylles sifes

D sige hylle sife

A sige hyll sife

Pl.

N sigeas hyllas sifu

G sigea hylla sifa

D sigum hyllum sifum

A sigeas hyllas sifu

The tribes and nations were usually of this very type, and were used always

in plural: Engle (the Angles), Seaxe (the Saxons), Mierce (the Mercians),

Norymbre (the Northumbrians), Dene (the Danish)

N Dene

G Dena (Miercna, Seaxna)

D Denum

A Dene

Fem.

Sg. Pl.

N hyd (hide) hde, hda

G hde hda

D hde hdum

A hd hde, hda

This kind of stems included all three genders and derived from the same

type of Indo-European stems, frequent also in other branches and languages

of the family.

Examples: masculine - mere (a sea), mete (food), dl (a part), giest (a

guest), drync (a drink); neuter - spere (a spear); feminine - cwn (a

woman), wiht (a thing).

u-stems

Masc. Fem.

Sg.

N sunu (son)feld (field) duru (door) hand (hand)

G suna felda dura handa

D suna felda dura handa

A sunu feld duru hand

Pl.

N suna felda dura handa

G suna felda dura handa

D sunum feldum durum handum

A suna felda dura handa

They can be either masculine or feminine. Here it is seen clearly how

Old English lost its final -s in endings: Gothic had sunus and handus,

while Old English has already sunu and hand respectively. Interesting that

dropping final consonants is also a general trend of almost all Indo-

European languages. Ancient tongues still keep them everywhere - Greek,

Latin, Gothic, Old Prussian, Sanskrit, Old Irish; but later, no matter

where a language is situated and what processes it undergoes, final

consonants (namely -s, -t, often -m, -n) disappear, remaining nowadays only

in the two Baltic languages and in New Greek.

Examples: masculine - wudu (wood), medu (honey), weald (forest), sumor (a

summer); fem. - nosu (a nose), flr (a floor).

The other type of nouns according to their declension was the group of

Weak nouns, derived from n-nouns is Common Germanic. Their declension is

simple and stable, having special endings:

Masc. Fem. Neut.

Sg.

N nama (name) cwene (woman) age (eye)

G naman cwenan agan

D naman cwenan agan

A naman cwenan age

Pl.

N naman cwenan agan

G namena cwenena agena

D namum cwenum agum

A naman cwenan agan

Examples: masc. - guma (a man), wita (a wizard), steorra (a star), mna

(the Moon), dma (a judge); fem. - eore (Earth), heorte (a heart), sunne

(Sun); neut. - are (an ear).

And now the last one which is interesting due to its special Germanic

structure. I am speaking about the root-stems which according to Germanic

laws of Ablaut, change the root vowel during the declension. In Modern

English such words still exist, and we all know them: goose - geese, tooth

- teeth, foot - feet, mouse - mice etc. At school they were a nightmare for

me, now they are an Old English grammar. Besides, in Old English time they

were far more numerous in the language.

Masc. Fem.

Sg.

N mann ft (foot) t (tooth) | hnutu (nut) bc (book) gs

(goose) ms (mouse) burg (burg)

G mannes ftes tes | hnute bce

gse mse burge

D menn ft t | hnyte

bc gs ms byrig

A mann ft t | hnutu bk

gs ms burg

Pl.

N menn ft t | hnyte bc

gs ms byrig

G manna fta ta | hnuta bca

gsa msa burga

D mannum ftum tum | hnutum bcum

gsum msum burgum

A menn ft t | hnyte bc

gs ms byrig

The general rule is the so-called i-mutation, which changes the vowel.

The conversion table looks as follows and never fails - it is universally

right both for verbs and nouns. The table of i-mutation changes remains

above.

Examples: fem. - wfman (a woman), c (an oak), gt (a goat), brc

(breeches), wlh (seam), dung (a dungeon), furh (a furrow), sulh (a

plough), grut (gruel), ls (a louse), rul (a basket), a (water), niht (a

night), m'g (a girl), scrd (clothes).

There are still some other types of declension, but not too important

fro understanding the general image. For example, r-stems denoted the

family relatives (dohtor 'a daughter', mdor 'a mother' and several

others), es-stems usually meant children and cubs (cild 'a child', cealf 'a

calf'). The most intriguing question that arises from the picture of the

Old English declension is "How to define which words is which kind of

stems?". I am sure you are always thinking of this question, the same as I

thought myself when first studying Old English. The answer is "I don't

know"; because of the loss of many endings all genders, all stems and

therefore all nouns mixed in the language, and one has just to learn how to

decline this or that word. This mixture was the decisive step of the

following transfer of English to the analytic language - when endings are

not used, people forget genders and cases. In any solid dictionary you will

be given a noun with its gender and kind of stem. But in general, the

declension is similar for all stems. One of the most stable differences of

masculine and feminine is the -es (masc.) or -e in genitive singular of the

Strong declension.

Now I am giving another table, the general declension system of Old

English nouns. Here '-' means a zero ending.

Strong declension (a, ja, wa, , j, w, i -stems).

| |Masculine |Neutral |Feminine |

| |Singular |Plural |Singular |Plural |Singular |Plural |

|Nominativ|- |-as |- |-u (-) |- |-a |

|e | | | | | | |

|Genitive |-es |-a |-es |-a |-e |-a |

|Dative |-e |-um |-e |-um |-e |-um |

|Accustive|- |-as |- |-u (-) |-e |-a |

| |Weak declension |u-stems |

| |Singular |Plural |Singular |Plural |

|Nominative |- |-an |- |-a |

|Genitive |-an |-ena |-a |-a |

|Dative |-an |-um |-a |-um |

|Accustive |-an |-an |- |-a |

The Old English Adjective.

In all historical Indo-European languages adjectives possess

practically the same morphological features as the nouns, the the sequence

of these two parts of speech is an ordinary thing in Indo-European.

However, the Nostratic theory (the one which unites Altaic, Uralic,

Semitic, Dravidian and Indo-European language families into one Nostratic

super-family, once speaking a common Proto-Nostratic language) represented

by Illych-Svitych and many other famous linguists, states that adjectives

in this Proto-Nostratic tongue were morphologically closer to the verbs

than to the nouns.

This theory is quite interesting, because even in Proto-Indo-European,

a language which was spoken much later than Proto-Nostratic, there are some

proofs of the former predicative function of the adjectives. In other

families of the super-family this function is even more clear. In

Altaic languages, and also in Korean and Japanese, which are originally

Altaic, the adjective plays the part of the predicate, and in Korean, for

example, the majority of adjectives are predicative. It means that though

they always denote the quality of the noun, they act the same way as verbs

which denote action. Adjective "red" is actually translated from Japanese

as "to be red", and the sentence Bara-wa utsukusii will mean "the rose is

beautiful", while bara is "a rose", -wa is the nominative marker, and

utsukusii is "to be beautiful". So no verb here, and the adjective is a

predicate. This structure is typical for many Altaic languages, and

probably was normal for Proto-Nostratic as well.

The Proto-Indo-European language gives us some stems which are hard to

denote whether they used to mean an adjective or a verb. Some later

branches reflect such stems as verbs, but other made them adjectives. So it

was the Proto-Indo-European epoch where adjectives as the part of speech

began to transform from a verbal one to a nominal one. And all Indo-

European branches already show the close similarity of the structure of

adjectives and nouns in the language. So does the Old English language,

where adjective is one of the nominal parts of speech.

As well as the noun, the adjective can be declined in case, gender and

number. Moreover, the instrumental case which was discussed before was

preserved in adjectives much stronger than in nouns. Adjectives must follow

sequence with nouns which they define - thet is why the same adjective can

be masculine, neuter and feminine and therefore be declined in two

different types: one for masculine and neuter, the other for feminine

nouns. The declension is more or less simple, it looks much like the

nominal system of declension, though there are several important

differences. Interesting to know that one-syllable adjectives

("monosyllabic") have different declension than two-syllable ones

("disyllabic"). See for yourselves:

Strong Declension

a, -stems

Monosyllabic

Sg.

Masc. Neut. Fem.

N blc (black) blc blacu

G blaces blaces blcre

D blacum blacum blcre

A blcne blc blace

I blace blace -

Pl.

N blace blacu blaca

G blacra blacra blacra

D blacum blacum blacum

A blace blacu blaca

Here "I" means that very instrumental case, answering the question (by

what? with whom? with the help of what?).

Disyllabic

Masc. Neut. Fem.

Sg.

N adig (happy) adig adigu

G adiges adiges adigre

D adigum adigum adigre

A adigne adig adige

I adige adige

Pl.

N adige adigu adiga

G adigra adigra adigra

D adigum adigum adigum

A adige adigu adigu

So not many new endings: for accusative singular we have -ne, and for

genitive plural -ra, which cannot be met in the declension of nouns. The

difference between monosyllabic and disyllabic is the accusative plural

feminine ending -a / -u. That's all.

ja, j-stems (swte - sweet)

Sg. Pl.

Masc. Neut. Fem. Masc. Neut. Fem.

N swte swte swtu swte swtu swta

G swtes swtes swtre swtra swtra swtra

D swtum swtum swtre swtum swtum swtum

A swtne swte swte swte swtu swta

I swte swte -

wa, w-stems

Sg.

Masc. Neut. Fem.

N nearu (narrow) nearu nearu

G nearwes nearwes nearore

D nearwum nearwum nearore

A nearone nearu nearwe

I nearwe nearwe

Pl.

N nearwe nearu nearwa

G nearora nearora nearora

D nearwum nearwum nearwum

A nearwe nearu nearwa

Actually, some can just omit all those examples - the adjectival

declension is the same as a whole for all stems, as concerns the strong

type. In general, the endings look the following way, with very few

varieties (note that "-" means the null ending):

[pic]

As for weak adjectives, they also exist in the language. The thing is

that one need not learn by heart which adjective is which type - strong or

weak, as you should do with the nouns. If you have a weak noun as a

subject, its attributive adjective will be weak as well. So - a strong

adjective for a strong noun, a weak adjective for a weak noun, the rule is

as simple as that.

Thus if you say "a black tree" that will be blc trow (strong), and "a

black eye" will sound blace age. Here is the weak declension example

(blaca - black):

Sg. Pl.

Masc. Neut. Fem.

N blaca blace blace blacan

G blacan blacan blacan blcra

D blacan blacan blacan blacum

A blacan blace blacan blacan

Weak declension has a single plural for all genders, which is pleasant

for those who don't want to remeber too many forms. In general, the weak

declension is much easier.

The last thing to be said about the adjectives is the degrees of

comparison. Again, the traditional Indo-European structure is preserved

here: three degrees (absolutive, comparative, superlative) - though some

languages also had the so-called "equalitative" grade; the special suffices

for forming comparatives and absolutives; suppletive stems for several

certain adjectives.

The suffices we are used to see in Modern English, those -er and -est

in weak, weaker, the weakest, are the direct descendants of the Old English

ones. At that time they sounded as -ra and -est. See the examples:

earm (poor) - earmra - earmost

blc (black) - blcra - blacost

Many adjectives changed the root vowel - another example of the Germanic

ablaut:

eald (old) - ieldra - ieldest

strong - strengra - strengest

long - lengra - lengest

geong (young) - gingra - gingest

The most widespread and widely used adjectives always had their

degrees formed from another stem, which is called "suppletive" in

linguistics. Many of them are still seen in today's English:

gd (good) - betera - betst (or slra - slest)

yfel (bad) - wiersa - wierest

micel (much) - mra - mst

ltel (little) - l'ssa - l'st

fear (far) - fierra - fierrest, fyrrest

nah (near) - narra - nehst, nhst

'r (early) - 'rra - 'rest

fore (before) - furra - fyrest (first)

Now you see what the word "first" means - just the superlative degree

from the adjective "before, forward". The same is with nehst from nah

(near) which is now "next".

Old English affixation for adjectives:

1. -ede (group "adjective stem + substantive stem") - micelhafdede

(large-headed)

2. -ihte (from substantives with mutation) - irnihte (thorny)

3. -ig (from substantives with mutation) - hlig (holy), mistig (misty)

4. -en, -in (with mutation) - gylden (golden), wyllen (wllen)

5. -isc (nationality) - Englisc, Welisc, mennisc (human)

6. -sum (from stems of verbs, adjectives, substantives) - sibbsum

(peaceful), hersum (obedient)

7. -feald (from stems of numerals, adjectives) - refeald (threefold)

8. -full (from abstract substantive stems) - sorgfull (sorrowful)

9. -ls (from verbal and nominal stems) - slpls (sleepless)

10. -lc (from substantive and adjective stems) - eorlc (earthly)

11. -weard (from adjective, substantive, adverb stems) - inneweard

(internal), hmweard (homeward)

The Old English Pronoun.

Pronouns were the only part of speech in Old English which preserved the

dual number in declension, but only this makes them more archaic than the

rest parts of speech. Most of pronouns are declined in numnber, case and

gender, in plural the majority have only one form for all genders.

We will touch each group of Old English pronouns and comment on them.

1.Personal pronouns

[pic]

Through the last 1500 years mn became mine, g turned into you (ye as

a colloquial variant). But changes are still significant: the 2nd person

singular pronouns disappeared from the language, remaining only in poetic

speech and in some dialects in the north of England. This is really a

strange feature - I can hardly recall any other Indo-European language

which lacks the special pronoun for the 2nd person singular (French tu,

German du, Russian ty etc.). The polite form replaced the colloquial one,

maybe due to the English traditional "ladies and gentlemen" customs.

Another extreme exists in Irish Gaelic, which has no polite form of

personal pronoun, and you turn to your close friend the same way as you

spoke with a prime minister - the familiar word, translated into French as

tu. It can sound normal for English, but really funny for Slavic, Baltic,

German people who make a thorough distinction between speaking to a friend

and to a stranger

2. Demonstrative pronouns ('I' means the instrumental case)

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3. Interrogative pronouns

N hw hwt

G hws hws

D hw'm hw'm

A hwone hwt

I - hw, hw

These pronouns, which actually mean the masculine and the neuter

varieties of the same pronoun, derive from Proto-Indo-European *kwis, with

*kw becoming hw in Germanic languages. In Gothic the combination hw was

considered as one sound which is another proof that the Indo-European the

labiovelar sound kw was a single sound with some specific articulation.

Later Germanic languages changed the sound in a different way: in

Norwegian it remained as hv, in German turned into w (as in wer 'who', was

'what'), in English finally changed into wh pronounced in most cases [w],

but somewhere also like [h] or [hw].

Interesting that the instrumental of the word hwt, once being a pronoun

form, later became the word why in English. So 'why?' is originally an

instrumental case of the interrogative pronoun.

Other interrogative pronouns, or adverbs, as they are sometimes

called, include the following, all beginning with hw:

hwilc 'which?' - is declined as the strong adjective (see adjectives above)

hwonne 'when?' - this and following are not declined, naturally

hw'r 'where?'

hwider 'whither?'

hwonan 'whence?'

4. Other kinds of pronouns

They include definite, indefinite, negative and relative, all typical for

Indo-European languages. All of them still exist in Modern English, and all

of them are given here:

a) definite

gehw (every) - declined the same way as hw

gehwilc (each),

ger (either),

'lc (each),

swilc (such) - all declined like strong adjectives

s ylca (the same) - declined like a weak adjective

b) indefinite

sum (some),

'nig (any) - both behave the same way as strong adjectives

c) negative

nn, n'nig (no, none) - declined like strong adjectives

d) relative

e (which, that)

se (which, that) - they are not declined

In Proto-Indo-European and in many ancient Indo-European languages there

was a special kind of declension calleed pronominal, using only by pronouns

and opposed to the one used by nouns, adjectives and numerals. Old English

lost it, and its pronouns use all the same endings as the nouns and

adjectives. Maybe the only inflection which remembers the Proto-language

times, is the neuter nominative -t in hwt and t, the ancient ending for

inanimate (inactive) nouns and pronouns.

The Old English Numeral.

It is obvious that all Indo-European languages have the general trend

of transformation

from the synthetic (or inflectional) stage to the analytic one. At least

for the latest 1,000 years this trend could be observed in all branches of

the family. The level of this analitization process in each single language

can be estimated by several features, their presence or absence in the

language. One of them is for sure the declension of the numerals. In Proto-

Indo-European all numerals, both cardinal and ordinal, were declined, as

they derived on a very ancient stage from nouns or adjectives, originally

being a declined part of speech. There are still language groups within the

family with decline their numerals: among them, Slavic and Baltic are the

most typical samples. They practically did not suffer any influence of the

analytic processes. But all other groups seem to have been influenced

somehow. Ancient Italic and Hellenic languages left the declension only for

the first four cardinal pronouns (from 1 to 4), the same with ancient

Celtic.

The Old English language preserves this system of declension only for

three numerals. It is therefore much easier to learn, though not for

English speakers I guess - Modern English lacks declension at all.

Here is the list of the cardinal numerals:

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Ordinal numerals use the suffix -ta or -a, etymologically a common Indo-

European one (*-to-).

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The Old English Adverb.

Adverbs can be either primary (original adverbs) or derive from the

adjectives. In fact, adverbs appeared in the language rather late, and

eraly Proto-Indo-European did not use them, but later some auxiliary nouns

and pronouns losing their declension started to play the role of adverbial

modifiers. That's how thew primary adverbs emerged.

In Old English the basic primary adverbs were the following ones:

a (then)

onne (then)

'r (there)

ider (thither)

n (now)

hr (here)

hider (hither)

heonan (hence)

sna (soon)

oft (often)

eft (again)

sw (so)

hwlum (sometimes).

Secondary adverbs originated from the instrumental singular of the

neuter adjectives of strong declension. They all add the suffix -e: wide

(widely), dope (deeply), fste (fast), hearde (hard). Another major

sugroup of them used the suffixes -lc, -lce from more complexed

adjectives: bealdlce (boldly), freondlce (in a friendly way).

Adverbs, as well as adjectives, had their degrees of comparison:

wde - wdor - wdost (widely - more widely - most widely)

long - leng (long - longer)

feorr (far) - fierr

sfte (softly) - sft

ae (easily) - e

wel (well) - betre - best

yfele (badly) - wiers, wyrs - wierst

micele (much) - mre - m'st

The Old English Verb.

Old English system had strong and weak verbs: the ones which used the

ancient Germanic type of conjugation (the Ablaut), and the ones which just

added endings to their past and participle forms. Strong verbs make the

clear majority. According to the traditional division, which is taken form

Gothic and is accepted by modern linguistics, all strong verbs are

distinguished between seven classes, each having its peculiarities in

conjugation and in the stem structure. It is easy to define which verb is

which class, so you will not swear trying to identify the type of

conjugation of this or that verb (unlike the situation with the

substantives).

Here is the table which is composed for you to see the root vowels of all

strong verb classes. Except the VII class, they all have exact stem vowels

for all four main forms:

[pic]

Now let us see what Old English strong verbs of all those seven

classes looked like and what were their main four forms. I should mention

that besides the vowel changes in the stem, verbal forms also changed stem

consonants very often. The rule of such changes is not mentioned

practically in any books on the Old English language, though there is some.

See for yourselves this little chart where the samples of strong verb

classes are given with their four forms:

Infinitive, Past singular, Past plural, Participle II (or Past Participle)

Class I

wrtan (to write), wrt, writon, writen

snpan (to cut), sn, snidon, sniden

Other examples: belfan (stay), clfan (cling), ygrpan (clutch), btan

(bite), sltan (slit), besmtan (dirty), gewtan (go), blcan (glitter),

scan (sigh), stgan (mount), scnan (shine), rsan (arise), lan (go).

Class II

bodan (to offer), bad, budon, boden

cosan (to choose), cas, curon, coren

Other examples: cropan (creep), clofan (cleave), flotan (fleet),

gotan (pour), grotan (weep), notan (enjoy), scotan (shoot), logan

(lie), browan (brew), drosan (fall), frosan (freeze), forlosan (lose).

Class III

III a) a nasal consonant

drincan (to drink), dranc, druncon, druncen

Other: swindan (vanish), onginnan (begin), sinnan (reflect), winnan

(work), gelimpan (happen), swimman (swim).

III b) l + a consonant

helpan (to help), healp, hulpon, holpen

Other: delfan (delve), swelgan (swallow), sweltan (die), bellan (bark),

melcan (milk).

III c) r, h + a consonant

steorfan (to die), stearf, sturfon, storfen

weoran (to become), wear, wurdon, worden

feohtan (to fight), feaht, fuhton, fohten

More: ceorfan (carve), hweorfan (turn), weorpan (throw), beorgan

(conceal), beorcan (bark).

Class IV

stelan (to steal), st'l, st'lon, stolen

beran (to bear), b'r, b'ron, boren

More: cwelan (die), helan (conceal), teran (tear), brecan (break).

Class V

tredan (to tread), tr'd, tr'don, treden

cwean (to say), cw', cw'don, cweden

More: metan (measure), swefan (sleep), wefan (weave), sprecan (to

speak), wrecan (persecute), lesan (gather), etan (eat), wesan (be).

Class VI

faran (to go), fr, fron, faren

More: galan (sing), grafan (dig), hladan (lade), wadan (walk), dragan

(drag), gnagan (gnaw), bacan (bake), scacan (shake), wascan (wash).

Class VII

htan (to call), ht, hton, hten

feallan (to fall), feoll, feollon, feallen

cnawan (to know), cnow, cnowon, cnwen

More: blondan (blend), ondr'dan (fear), lcan (jump), scadan (divide),

fealdan (fold), healdan (hold), sponnan (span), batan (beat), blwan

(flourish), hlwan (low), spwan (flourish), mwan (mow), swan (sow),

rwan (turn).

So the rule from the table above is observed carefully. The VII class was

made especially for those verbs which did not fit into any of the six

classes. In fact the verbs of the VII class are irregular and cannot be

explained by a certain exact rule, though they are quite numerous in the

language.

Examining verbs of Old English comparing to those of Modern English it

is easy to catch the point of transformation. Not only the ending -an in

the infinitive has dropped, but the stems were subject to many changes some

of which are not hard to find. For example, the long in the stem gives i

with an open syllable in the modern language (wrtan > write, scnan >

shine). The same can be said about a, which nowadays is a in open syllables

pronounced [] (hladan > lade). The initial combination sc turns to sh; the

open e was transformed into ea practically everywhere (sprecan > speak,

tredan > tread, etc.). Such laws of transformation which you can gather

into a small table help to recreate the Old word from a Modern English one

in case you do not have a dictionary in hand, and therefore are important

for reconstruction of the languages.

Weak verbs in Old English (today's English regular verbs) were conjugated

in a simpler way than the strong ones, and did not use the ablaut

interchanges of the vowel stems. Weak verbs are divided into three classes

which had only slight differences though. They did have the three forms -

the infinitive, the past tense, the participle II. Here is the table.

Class I

Regular verbs

Inf. Past PP

dman (to judge), dmde, dmed

heran (to hear), herde, hered

nerian (to save), nerede, nered

styrian (to stir), styrede, styred

fremman (to commit), fremede, fremed

cnyssan (to push), cnysede, cnysed

When the suffix is preceded by a voiceless consonant the ending changes a

little bit:

cpan (to keep), cpte, cpt / cped

grtan (to greet), grtte, grt / grted

If the verb stem ends in consonant plus d or t:

sendan (to send), sende, send / sended

restan (to rest), reste, rest / rested

Irregular

sellan (to give), sealde, seald

tellan (to tell), tealde, teald

cwellan (to kill), cwealde, cweald

t'can (to teach), thte, tht

r'can (to reach), rhte, rht

bycgan (to buy), bohte, boht

scan (to seek), shte, sht

wyrcan (to work), worhte, worht

encan (to think), hte, ht

bringan (to bring), brhte, brht

Other examples of the I class weak verbs just for your interest: berian

(beat), derian (harm), erian (plough), ferian (go), herian (praise),

gremman (be angry), wennan (accustom), clynnan (sound), dynnan (resound),

hlynnan (roar), hrissan (tremble), scean (harm), wecgean (move), fran

(go), l'ran (teach), drfan (drive), fsan (hurry), drgean (dry), hepan

(heap), mtan (to meet), wscean (wish), byldan (build), wendan (turn),

efstan (hurry). All these are regular.

Class II

macian (to make), macode, macod

lufian (to love), lufode, lufod

hopian (to hope), hopode, hopod

Tis class makes quite a small group of verbs, all of them having -o- before

the past endings. Other samples: lofian (praise), stician (pierce), eardian

(dwell), scawian (look), weorian (honour), wundrian (wonder), fstnian

(fasten), mrsian (glorify).

Class III

habban (to have), hfde, hfd

libban (to live), lifde, lifd

secgan (to say), sgde, sgd

hycgan (to think), hogde, hogod

ragan (to threaten), rade, rad

smagan (to think), smade, smad

frogan (to free), frode, frod

fogan (to hate), fode, fod

Old English verbs are conjugated having two tenses - the Present tense

and the Past tense, and three moods - indicative, subjunctive, and

imperative. Of these, only the subjunctive mood has disappeared in the

English language, acquiring an analytic construction instead of

inflections; and the imperative mood has coincided with the infinitive form

(to write - write!). In the Old English period they all looked different.

The common table of the verb conjugation is given below. Here you

should notice that the Present tense has the conjugation for all three

moods, while the Past tense - for only two moods (no imperative in the Past

tense, naturally). Some more explanation should be given about the stem

types.

In fact all verbal forms were generated in Old English from three verb

stems, and each verb had its own three ones: the Infinitive stem, the Past

Singular stem, the Past Plural stem. For the verb wrtan, for example,

those three stems are: wrt- (infinitive without the ending -an), wrt-

(the Past singular), writ- (the Past plural without the ending -on). The

table below explains where to use this or that stem.

[pic]

Additionally, the participles (Participle I and Participle II) are

formed by the suffix -ende to the Infinitive stem (participle I), or the

prefix ge- + the Past Plural stem + the ending -en (Participle II).

Tired of the theory? Here is the preactice. We give several examples of the

typical verbs - first strong, then weak, then irregular.

Class I strong - wrtan (to write)

Pres. Past

Ind. Subj. Imper. Ind. Subj.

Sg. 1 wrte - wrt

2 wrtest wrte wrt write } wrte

3 wrte - wrt

Pl. wrta wrten 2 wrta writon writen

Infinitive Participle

wrtan I wrtende II gewriten

Class II weak - lufian (to love)

Pres. Past

Ind. Subj. Imp. Ind. Subj.

Sg. 1 lufie - lufode

2 lufast }lufie lufa lufodest } lufode

3 lufa - lufode

Pl. lufia lufien 2 lufia lufodon lufoden

Part.

I lufiende II gelufod

Class III strong - bindan (to bind)

Pres. Past

Ind. Subj. Imp. Ind. Subj.

Sg. 1 binde - band, bond

2 bindest } binde bind bunde } bunde

3 binde - band, bond

Pl. binda binden binda bundon bunden

Inf. Part.

bindan I bindende II gebunden

Class V strong - son (to see)

Pres. Past

Ind. Subj. Imp. Ind. Subj.

Sg.1 so - seah

2 sehst } so seoh swe } swe,

3 seh - seah sge

Pl. so son 2 so sawon swen

Participle

I sonde II gesewen, gesegen

Class VII strong - fn (to catch)

Pres. Past

Ind. Subj. Imp. Ind. Subj.

Sg. 1 f - feng

2 fhst } f fh fenge } fenge

3 fh - feng

Pl. f fn 2 f fengon fengen

Participle

I fnde II gefangen, gefongen

Class III weak - secgan (to say)

Pres. Past

Ind. Subj. Imp. Ind. Subj.

Sg.1 secge - sgde

2 sgst }secge sge sgdest }sgde

3 sg - sgde

Pl. secga secgen 2 secga sgdon sgden

Part.

I secgende II gesgd

Class III weak - libban (to live)

Pres. Past

Ind. Subj. Imp. Ind. Subj.

Sg.1 libbe - lifde

2 liofast }libbe liofa lifdest } lifde

3 liofa - lifde

Pl. libba libben 2 libba lifdon lifden

Part.

I libbende II gelifd

A special group is made by the so-called Present-Preterite verbs, which

are conjugated combining two varieties of the usual verb conjugation:

strong and weak. These verbs, at all not more than seven, are nowadays

called modal verbs in English.

Present-Preterite verbs have their Present tense forms generated from the

Strong Past, and the Past tense, instead, looks like the Present Tense of

the Weak verbs. The verbs we present here are the following: witan (to

know), cunnan (can), urfan (to need), dearan (to dare), munan (to

remember), sculan (shall), magan (may).

Present of witan (= strong Past)

Ind. Subj. Imp.

Sg. 1 wt -

2 wast } wite wite

3 wt -

Pl. witon 2 witen wita

Past (= Weak)

Ind. Subj.

Sg.1 wisse, wiste

2 wissest, wistest } wisse, wiste

3 wisse, wiste

Pl. wisson, wiston wissen, wisten

Participles: I witende, II witen, gewiten

cunnan (can)

Pres. Past

Ind. Subj. Ind. Subj.

Sg. 1 cann ce

2 canst } cunne cest } ce

3 cann ce

Pl. cunnon cunnen con cen

urfan (need)

Sg. 1 earf orfte

2 earft } urfe orftest } orfte

3 earf orfte

Pl. urfon urfen orfton orften

magan (may)

Sg. 1 mg meahte mihte, mihten

2 meaht } mge meahtest

3 mg meahte

Pl. magon mgen meahton

The main difference of verbs of this type in modern English is their

expressing modality, i.e. possibility, obligation, necessity. They do not

require the particle to before the infinitive which follows them. In Old

English in general no verb requires this particle before the infinitive. In

fact, this to before the infinitive form meant the preposition of

direction.

And now finally a few irregular verbs, which used several different stems

for their tenses. These verbs are very important in Old English and are met

very often in the texts: wesan (to be), bon (to be), gn (to go), dn (to

do), willan (will). Mind that there was no Future tense in the Old English

language, and the future action was expressed by the Present forms, just

sometimes using verbs of modality, willan (lit. "to wish to do") or sculan

(lit. "to have to do").

wesan (to be) - has got only the Present tense forms, uses the verb bon in

the Past

Present

Ind. Subj. Imp.

Sg.1 eom -

2 eart } se, s wes

3 is -

Pl. sind sen, sn 2 wesa

bon (to be)

Present

Ind. Subj. Imp.

Sg. 1 bo -

2 bist }bo bo

3 bi -

Pl. bo bon 2 bo

Past

Ind. Subj.

Sg. 1 ws

2 wre } wre

3 ws

Pl. wron wren

Participle I is bonde (being).

gn (to go)

Pres. Past

Ind. Subj. Imp. Ind. Subj.

Sg.1 g - ode

2 g'st } g g odest } ode

3 g' - ode

Pl. g 2 gn g odon oden

Participles:

I gnde, gangende II gegn

So there were in fact two verbs meaning 'to be', and both were

colloquial. In Middle English, however, the verb wesan replaced fully the

forms of bon, and the words bo (I am), bist (thou art) fell out of use.

The Past tense forms was and were are also derivatives from wesan.

Syntactically, the language had only two main tenses - the Present and

the Past. No progressive (or Continuous) tenses were used, they were

invented only in the Early Middle English period. Such complex tenses as

modern Future in the Past, Future Perfect Continuous did not exist either.

However, some analytic construction were in use, and first of all the

perfective constructions. The example Hie geweorc geworhten hfdon 'they

have build a fortress' shows the exact Perfect tense, but at that time it

was not the tense really, just a participle construction showing that the

action has been done. Seldom you can also find such Past constructions,

which later became the Past Perfect Tense.

Verb syntax includes a number of suffices and prefixes which can be

met in Old English texts and especially in poetry:

Suffices:

1. -s- (from substantive or adjective stems) - m'rsian (to announce;

from m're - famous)

2. -lc- - nlcan (to approach)

3. -ett- - bliccettan (to sparkle)

Prefixes

1. - = out of, from - rsan (arise), wakan (awake), beran (sustain)

2. be- = over, around, by - begn (go around), beencan (think over),

behafdian (behead)

3. for- = destruction or loss - fordn (destroy), forweoran (perish)

4. mis- = negation or bad quality - mislcian (displease)

5. of- = reinfors - ofslan (kill), ofton (take away)

6. on- = change or separation - onbindan (unbind), onlcan (unlock)

7. t- = destruction - tbrecan (break)

The Old English Auxiliary Words.

These traditionally include prepositions, conjunctions, different

particles and

interjections. All Indo-European languages have this system of auxiliary

parts of speech, though there are languages which lack some of them.

Japanese, for example, has no prepositions, and the service function in the

sentence belongs to postpositive words which have cases, the same as nouns.

Korean does not use any conjunctions, replacing them by about 50 different

kinds of verbal adverbs. As for Chinese, it simply does not make any

distinction in the sentence between basic and auxiliary words.

Most of Old English prepositions are easily recognizable:

Primary: of (of, out of), t (to), fram (from), t (to), wi (against), in,

of, mid (with), on (on, at), be (by, near, to, because of, about), urh

(through), under, ofer (over), fter (after), bufan (above), t (out).

Secondary: beforan (before), btan (without), benoran (north of), etc.

t means 'to' and wi means 'against'. In Germanic all prepositions divided

into those who used nouns in dative, accusative or genitive. But in the Old

English period this distinction begins to disappear, and only some of the

prepositions use dative (mid, btan, sometimes on, in) or genitive (fram,

t, fter).

Conjunctions included the following:

Primary: and / ond (and) , ac (but), gif (if), or.

Secondary: ger ge... ge (both... and..., either ... or...), hwonne

(when), a (when), onne (when), h (though), tte (that), r (before),

sw... sw... (so... as...).

And a few interjections: i (yes), w (woe!, wow!), hwt (there! what!).



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