-


-

ǡ-Ӽ߬ ӫԿ ҡ ӫ 󫮡.

ӫԴѡ XIX Ѭ ǡ ᡿ ѡү

ѡ ӫ Ѽ . ġ ٽ ԫ ߿, ԫ ӫ

Կ "ԴѮ " - ᬽ ӫ ߫

߿ ߫ѡ ߫. ǡ ӿѪὫ ᬪ

ԫ ӫ Կ ӫ, 󿺡 ԫӫ.

޿ , ѡ ǡѮ Ӵ ߽Կ Ӫ,

󽴽 Ѫټ ١ ߬ ԫӫ, ᬪ ڿἿ

߬ ӫ޽ѡԿ. 񫽯 ǡ ӿի

1/3 ӫ ӫ޽ѡ ӫҬ 2/5 ӫ ӫ޽ѡ ݬ߻

(6). ӫ ԫ, Կҽӫ὿ ӡٮ ӫ ޡѮ ԫ, ԫ

ѻ ߬ ҡԫ ѻᵿ Ἣ Ѫ Ὧ ,

﫡񫡫 - ӫ ӫ ߫ ѡ.

XIX Ѭ ѡ ѽӿ᡿ ѡ,

Ӫ ѡߴ Ѽ. ᡫ ԫ ݬ߬ Կ߬

Ѽ ӿ὿Կ߬ Ӫ - Ӽ᡿. Կ

Ѽ ӫ ӫ޽ѡԿ ٽ , Ѽ ǡ; ѻ ᵿ

Ӫế ߬ ١ ԫӫ ԫ

ѽἿ , ݻ ӿ὿ Ѽ ӿߴ, ԫ

Ὣ ѽ ѻѽѡ ӿԫӿ. Ѻҽ

ߴ ѽ , ߫Ӵѡ Ἷ Ѫ

һѮ޿ ỿ὿Կ߬ ӪἿ.

Ἣ 󫺡ѡ Կ ӫԿ ᡫ ߫ Ѽѽټ

ѡѡѼ ӫӵ ݬ߬ ڿ ӿ὿Կ߬ ,

ү , ӫ޽ѡԿ. ӫ޽ѡ ǡ ի

߫ԫ ԫ: Ѽ ӫ ٽ ѽ, ӿѽ.

὿ ӫ ѽ ѽӿ᡿ ѽ,

ӿѽ ԫӫ. ǡ߬ү Ӫế ӿѬ὿

ԫ ԫ , ӫټ ӿٽ 󽫪ѡ

᡿Ѯ ỿ. Ѻҽ Ѽ ỿ ӫ߽

Ѽ ӫ ݬ߻ ǡ: ԫ ߬ ԫӡ

ݬ߻ 1900 1912 . ѽ 77%, ԫ ݬ߻ ỿ

ԫ ӿ ӫ 624%. Ҽ ߬ ỿὫ󽫪ѡ

᡿Ѯ ӿ 1902-1914 . ӫ߽ ӿӡ ԫ

(6,.34).

Կ ᡿Ѯ ӿ߿ ӿٽ (ӿ,

ỿ, 󽫪ѡٮ ԫү ӫ޽ѡ ὴ, ӿ߿

ӿٽ 500%), Ѭ὿ ỿ ѡ ӫ޽ѡԿ.

Ѻҽ ߬ ӫ޽ѡ ᡫ Ѯ.

ӫ ԫ, ǡ ếߴ Դ ӿ, Դ޿ߴ Կ 20

, ԫ Ѽ Ӽ᡿ ӿ 1900 1914 ٽ

Ѻ ӿ. ߽ 1900 . 񫽯 ǡ ӿի񿽫 29,7% ӫ

22,1% ӫ ӫ ҡ, ԫ 1913 . 񫽴

һ ߫ѡ 21,8% 13,2%. (6, .34). ӫ ԫ, ǡ

Կ ٽ , ԫ ԫ ѡ Կ

߻߫὿ ߬ѡ ӫ ӫ޽ѡԿ.

ԫ Ѽ, ߬ ӫ޽ѡ Ӵ ի,

Ӽ߬ ӿ Ѽѽ ӫ߽. ԫ ӫ

Կ߬, ݬ߬ ٽἿ. ӫү ӫ

ᡫѡ ݬ߬ ڿ Ӽ᡿ Ὣ ѽ

ѡ Ἣ ᡿ᡡ ԫ Կ - ߿

Ѻҽ ᡬ-߬ 󫮡 1870 .

ū߽ ᡵҺ߬ ӫ ѵѼ ӿ ӿӿ ӽ ߬: "

񿽿 ; ѻ Ҫ ӫߴ Ӫ

Կ ӫѡԿ" (5,.6). ԫ ҡ ٽ ߽ Ѽѵ

ӪếѮ. ᡬ-߬ 󫮡 Ӽ᡿ ӿԫӿ

ӿѡ - ؽ ӿ. ӿ, Ӵ ӫ,

᪡Ѯү ӫ ԫ ѽѺ Դѽ ӫ޽ѡԿ -

ԡԿ, һ.

ѽү ӫ ὿ ݬ߬ ԫ - ӿҵ 5 .

ᡬ, ѡ ᡵ ߫ ѡᵿ ỿὫ

ӫ޽ѡԿ Ҭ . 14 - 1900 1913 . - ٻ

ҡ Ӽ᡿ ӫ߽ Ѽ , Կ 󿡫

񡴽 ٻ ὿ - Ѻҽ, ҡ 󫮡 Ӽ᡿

Ѽ ӫ ѡ ѽѺ , Ѽ ٻ ὿

Կ 1,7 ի񿽿 ߬.

ѡ Ѻѡ ǡ ߻ӿ὿ Ѽ ӫ Ӽ߬ ޡѮ

ԫ. ߡټ Ἷ ݬ߻ Ӽ᡿ ٽ Ҽѡ, ޿,

ݽѬӫա߬ ѽ, տ߬ ӼԿ߬ ӫҬ, ѽ

ӫ޽ѡԿ, .., Ӽ᡿ ߡ Ὣ ߬

ԫ, ӿѼ ӿԫӿ, ޿ ߡ 󴺿 ǡѮ.

߻ Ѽѵ ޡѮ ԫ ߻߫ ߿Ѽ ӿ

ӿ߬ ӿ, ԫ Ѽ Ӽ᡿ 70- XIX Ѭ ٽ

ѡ ߿Ѽ ӫѬ - ѡ Ἣѡ ޽ 󫺿

- Ѫ ԫ. 1900 . Ӽ߬ 󽫪ѡ ᡿Ѯ ߫󽴽

15 . ӫ, 1914 . Կ Ҫ 35 . ӫ ߫󽴽

߬ 2/3 ᡵҺ߬"(6, .34).

ӿ 1871 1889 . ԫ Ӽ᡿ ѽ 1400%,

ԫ Ѽ ߬ ѽ 25%. ߽

Ѭԫټ ᪡ټ , ԫ ԫ ӿ ӫ

Ѽѵ ԫ ӫ 300%, ߬ - 125%, Ѽ

ٿ὿ 300%, Ӵ 11%, ὿ Ӵ 20%,

Ѽ - ٿ὿ 400% (5, .6). ߻ Ӽᡵ ߻߫Ὣ ԫ

, ԫ Ӽ᡿ ӫѡ ѡ , ӫѡ ޿ӫ

߽ ѽѡ, ٽ ԫ , ԫ 󽴽 Ѽѵ

ӿѽѮ ߬ ١ ԫӫ ᡿Ѯ.

Ӽ᡿ ӿ 񫽪 ٽ ߿ٮ

᡿ ߫ . 󫺼 Կѡ ᬿ-

ѽ Ѻҽԫ ӫ Կ Ѻ ڿ

񡫮 ߽ 񿻽Կ߬ ѡ Ӽ᡿ ҽᪿ᡿

ӫ߬ ӿ 1905 ١Ҫѡ ӫ ǡѮ

߬ ӫ. 󫺡 Ѻѡ ӫԿ ߫

ѮѮ ӿѮ - ǡѮ.

ӫԴѡ ԫԿ ǡ Ѻѽ ߻ . ԫ

󿽫 ߽Ѽ ԫ, ԫ ǡ - ӫ, ԫ Ѯ ٽ

߫Ӫ , Ѽ իԡү Ӽ. Ӽ᡿ , ӫԿ, ٽ

Կѡ ᡫ, ߡү ӫ 񫽪 ٽ իԡ

Ӽ. ѡѼ Ӽ߬ ӿ, ѡ, ԫ

"߬ ӫ ߻" (4,.581) Ὣ

὿ ߿ ѡ-߬ ڿ ѡ.

ӫ ԫ ߫Կ, ԫү 񫽪ѡ ٽ Ӽ᡿, ٽ

ѫի Ѽѵ ԫ ӿ Ӽ᡿ ѽѺ

ӫ ߽ 󫮡. ٽ Լѡ , Ӵ

ӫԫ ӫ޽ѡԿ, ӫի񿽫 ڿ᡿ ѡ ߬ҽ Ӽ᡿.

Ѻҽ Ӽ᡿Ѯ ѽ ѡ

ǡ . 1908 1912 . Ӽ᡿ ᬽὫ Ѫ 4

Ѯ , ԫ 2 ڿ (6, .131).

ǡ߬ ѽ Ὣ, ԫ ѡ-߬ Ӽ᡿

ǡ ԫ ߴ Ѽѵ Ἷ

ӫ, ߫ ӫ ߬ ҡᵿ ӿ߬ ӿ

߽ 󫮡. ԫ ٽ Ѻ ߡ, ǡ, ᬪ

Ӽ᡿, ѽ ӫ . 櫺

ԫ, ǡ Դҽ ѡ-߬ Ҫѡ, ԫ

ӫ񫽪 󻽫 ӫ 󫮡. Ԭ ѡ

ѡ Ѯ - "ԫ" ߿ ӫᵿ Ѫ Ҽ

ӪἿ, Ѯ, ԫ ǡ ѽ

񿵿 ѿ, ὿ ѡү ӫ. ,

1908 . ǡ ѽ 8 ԫ, Ӽ᡿ - 7. 櫫ԡѡ

ӫѡߵ ӫ Կ ٽ ᬿ: 51 - ǡ 24 - Ӽ᡿ (6,

. 131).

Ѻҽ Ӽ᡿ ߿ ԡ߿ѽ ߬,

߫ԡѡ ѡ-߬ ߿ ὿ ӿߴ ӿԡ. ԫ

ԫ ߽, ӫ, ߿ Ҫѡ, ԫ

߻߫Ὣ Ӽ὿ᵿ Ѫҡӫ ԡѡ. ѼὫ ѻѡ

᡿ ᡫ ٽ 󿡫ԫ Ѽѵ ѽ, ԫӫ Ѻ

߬ ӡ ѡ 񽫪ѡ ߬

ѽѮ ᡿ѡ ߬ Ҫѡ. ԫ Ӫ

ѡ, Ѯ ǡ ӿ ӿ "

߬ Ѽѵ ", ߼Ӵ ԫ

ӫ 󫮡 ǡ Ὣ ߫᡿ ޫ ի

Ѽѵ.

󫺼 ޿ѽ ի ѡ ߿ ԫ ǡ

Ӽ᡿ ߬ ߫ 񻫽Ѽ 󫮡, ӿѼ Ӫ

ӿѽ ߻ի. 佴 ǡ ᬿ ߫

ᡵ. ߡ ѡ Ѫ ڡ ߫: ǡ,

ᡵ ٽ ټ ټ ӪἿ, ڿڿ ѡ

ạ Դ ; ӫ ԫ, ᡵ, ǡ ὿ ߿ѡ

ѡ ڿ Ӽ᡿ - ǡ ٽ ѡ Ѽѵ , ᡵ,

Ѯ ү ᡿ Ӽ᡿Ѯ, ٽ ߡ իԡ Ӽ. ᡵ

ԫ ѽ ӿԫӿ ѡ Ӽ᡿ - ݬ

Ӵ ԫ ӿ ٽ Դѽټ ӫ.

ի Ӽ߬ Ӽ ᡵҺ߬, ѽ ᡵ ٽ

ᬪ ᮡ ῡ߫ᡫ ߫ ǡѮ ɫ߿Ѯ.

ɫ߿ ٽ ᪡ټ ߫ ǡ ᡵ, ٽ

ԡ, ԫ Ӽ߬ ѡ ᡿ ի 󫮡

ӫ, ԫ ӫ Դ.

Ѯ ԫӫ, Ӽ᡿ ߫ ӫѡٮ ߫ - ѡԿ߬

߫ Ӽ᡿, ӫ-ѡӿ ὿. ὿ ӫ-ѡӿ ѽ

Ѻ ӿԫӿ ѡ , ԫ

ѡ, ԫ ӿѽ ߽ ի ὿ ǡ.

ǡ Ҽѽ 󫮡 ޿ ߻ӡ ӫ Ѫ Ἷ

߫߿ Ѽ ῼ һ, ԫ ѽὫ ǡ ӫ

᡿ᵿѮ, Ѽ ӫѡٮ ߫. ᬿ ẫ, ᬽѡ ߫

ǡ ߻ѽ , Ѽ Ӽ᡿ - Ҽӡ Ӫ ǡ

ի ӫѡ ߫, ԫ 󫽴 ǡ Ѵߴ

Ѯ 󫮡 ߽, ߽ ӿ ӫٮ .

Ӽ᡿ ԫ ߽ ӫ

󫮡.

ӫԴѡ ߽Ѯ Կ XIX Ѭ ߬ Ӽ߬

Ὤ὿ Դ Ѽ . ߫ү ӫ Կ

ӫԿ ӿѽ ӿ, ԫ Ǻ Ѽ ԫ -

ߡ ѡ Ӽ߬ 񿻽Կ. 80- XIX . Ӽ᡿

Կ ƫ, ҡ, ԫү ӿ - Կ߬ ߽

ѻѽѡ Ѫ ӫѮ߬ Ἷ ӿԫӿ. ѻ

Ѽѵ ӫ޽ѡԿ ԫ 󽴽 Ѽѵ

ѽ ӿ ߿ ޿ѡ Ѯ

ӿ. ӡ ԫ ԡѡ ߬᡿, ѽᡡ

ټ, ڿ ᡵӫ, ԫ -ѬѼ ᡡټ

ѽ Ѭ 1897 . Ѯ :" Ѽѡ, Ѽѵ 񡫼

߫Ѯ һ Ѽ, - , 󽴽 ,

ѫӿ,- Կ Ѽѡ ӫ޽...񡿼 ߽: իԿ

ԫ ѡ, Ѽ ߫Ѽ"(6, .36).

᪡ ӿԫӿ, Ѽ, Ѻټ ߬Ѽټ ի񿽿

Ҭ ӫѮ߬ ԫӫ, ԫ ߫὿ ѽߴ

Ѽ ԫ ٽ. Ӽ᡿Ѯ ԫ 󫺼Կ: ߴ

󫮡 ԡ Ҫ ӿԫӿ, ߡ ԫӫ Ѽ

᡿ ӫ ѽ , ԫ ٽ

Ӽ Ѻ߿, Կ߬ 󽴽 Ҭ. ӫ ԫ,

Ӽ᡿ Ѽ ߿Ἷ ӫԿԫ ѮѼ ޿ѡ ӿ߬

ӿ ڿ ߫ӡ.

ūԬ Ӽ᡿ ԡү ӫ ӫ Կ ٽ

߻ޡټ - ӫ ếߴ ӿ Ѫ ǡѮ ᡵѮ

᡿ѡ 󽿴, ӫ ѡ ᮺ 鿽ѽ

Ѽѵ ߫ ӫ, ѼԿ ѡ

Ӽ߬ ᡫ߬ "" Ѽ - .. ᵿ

"٪ ", ὿ Ӽ᡿ ӫ ӡ 񫽿 ᡵҺ߬

諡. ūԫ Ӽ᡿ ١Ҫѡ ٽ ߽ Ԭߴ

ӫ ӿѡѡ ߿ Կ ӫ ǡѮ, ӿѡ

, Ӽ᡿ ߿. ߼Ӵ

ү Ӵ, Ӽ߬ ѽ ޽ ү

Ӽ὿ᵿ ԡѡ ǡѮ Ὣ ӿ ߽

Ѯ, ߫ѡ ѫԿ߬ Ҽ

ԫ὿ ӫᵿ.

90- XIX Ѭ Ӽ߬ ѽ ߬Ὣ ߽

ӿ߬ ӿ, ԫ ݬ߻߿ ӿ߬

ỿ὿. ټ Ѻټ ԫѡѼ ǡ Ӽ᡿

߬ ӿ, ԫٮ ӫ񫽪ߴ ӿӡ 1895 1899 .

90- ת ӿ ޽ ԫӫѡ

ὼẫ. ӿԫӿ, ԫ ٽ ԫӫѡ, ի񿽿 Ҭ

ӫ - ߬ ѽѡ. ӫ ߡ὿ ת ӿ

ӫ Ѽѽ, ԫ ݬ߻ᵿ ѡ

ѽѡ ӿ. XVIII Ѭ Ѽ ӫ ӿ޽ , ԫ,

ߡ ӫ , ߡ὿ ߬ү . ӫ ԫ, ѻѡ

߬ Ҫ ߫ ԫӫ, ԫ

߽ ѡ Ѽ.

ū߽ ԬԿ 񡿬 ߬ ӿԫӿ

Ԭ ᡿ ߬ ߻Ἷ - Ѽ ᡪ.

ټ Ѽ ٽ ߫ᡡ 1890 ӿ߬ ת-

ӿ߬ ᡿ ( ) Ὣ ߿ ɫ - 󽿴ѽ

߬ . ᡿ ӿ 񡿬 ӫ

ӿٽ, ߬ Ѻѡ ҽ ӯ ޿

.

Ѭ 1895 ӿ ѡ Ӫѡ ߬ Կ,

ԫ ѽ ᡿ߴ ݬ߻񿵿

ỿ Ѽ߫ - ߻󿪡 ߿ ɫ. ݬ߻񿵿

Ѽ߫ ѡ ߻ի - ٽ Ἷ. ԫ ѡ

ѽ ޿ߴ Ӽ᡿.

ᮺ 鿽ѽ II ٽ Ѻѡ ӫ ѽἼ, ԫӫ

ӿ, ԫ " ߻󿽿 ᡡټ Ἷ, ӿ

Ҫѡ Ӫ"(6,.42). ѽἼ ٽ ߵѡѡ

ǡ ٺ. ԫ Ӽ߬ ԫ ߻߫Ὣ

߬ ӿ.

ԫ ߽үڿ ԫѡ ߽ Ӭ Ѻ߽

ݬ߬ ǡ-Ӽ߬ ӫԿ: ԫ Ҭ

Կ ӫ, ԫү ὿ ѡ ԫ һѮ޿

ᡬ ǡ Ӽ᡿. ߬ ߻ ԫҽ

ѡ ߫ һӫ, ԫ ԫ

ạ ᮫ . ԫ ٽ , Ѽ ߿Ѽ

ɫ߫, 񡫮 ԫӫ, "Ѽѵ ᡬ" - һѮ ߫

᡿ᵿ Ӽ᡿, Ѽ ѫ 濼ѡ߫.

諽ᵿ Ѽ Ѫѡ ᡿ ӫټ ӿ

Ҫ ӿԫӿ ٽ ѡ Ἷ. ԫ һ -

߬ү ᡿. ת ӿ Կ 󽴽 ᡿

߿ ɫ. ӫ ݬ߬ ٽ ԫ ѽѼ

Կ߬, ԫ ᬪ ݬ߬ү 񫻽Ѭ

ӫԿ. Կ ߬ ѽ ɫ

߬ 󽿴 ӿԫӿ, ԫ Ѯ ѡ -

ӡү ү ɫѺ. ɫѺ ᡿ ߫ѡټ

ѡټ ӴἿ, ԫ ߫޿ ߽

. Ѽ ߬ ӿ ӫ ߫ү Կ߬ү

Կ, 󬽯 ߬ 󿺿ԫ ӽ ҽᪿ᡿ ߻ӡ

ӫ߫. ɫ ߬ߴ 󫮡 Ἷ : "ԫ 󫮡

ᬵ ѡ" (4,.589).

"Ѽѵ ᡬ" ѫ 濼ѡ Կ Ἣ ӿ 󡿼᡿

, 25% ӫ 󽴽 ߫ ߫ү

. Կ߬ 󽴽 Ӽ߬

Ҭ ԫ, ԫ ߽ ᡫѡ Ӽ߬ ӫѬԫ

Ἷ Ѽѵ ѡ ԫ ӿ -񡫮 ӿ

߫񿡴 ѻү ѻ, ԫ ٽ ի

ӫᡡ ѡ.

ѽἼ ԫ 鿽ѽ II ٽ ԫ Ὣ Ӽ߬

һѡ . ԫ Ѽ ᡿ ԫ

ӫ ѡ ޽ ޿ӫ ѡ ỿ

߻ӡү ӿԫӿ. Ἣ 󡫮 ӿ ԫ ݬ߻߿ ٽ ѽ᡿

߻ Ѻ ߬Ѽ ὴ. ߬ Ӽ᡿ ѽ

󫺼Կ Ӵ ݬ߻ᵿ ߫ ὴ ߽Կ ѡ-

߬ , ޽ ѡ Ӽ ԫ . ޿

񻫽, ԫ ԫ һ ѿ ӫ ɫ 濼ѡ

ٽ ῡ߫ ԫ. ԫ ѡ ޿ӫ

Ӫế. ūԫ-ԫ ᬿ, Ὣ, Ѻѽ ߫Կ ѡ

߿ ӫ ѽѺ ӫ ӿ὿ Կ߬ ѡ.

ӫԬ ӫ ٽ ߫ "ӽ߬ ת-ӿ߬

ѽѺӫ ᡿" ( ԿѼ Ѽѵ ᡬ "ԡ "),

߬ ᬵӡ ٽ Ѫѡ ѫ 濼ѡ߫ ..

߿߬ ӿӫ, ݬ߬ ѡ ӿ

Կ߬ү ߬, ߽Ҫ 񿻽Կ߬ ӫ

ѡ ѼἿ Ἷԡ - ߻

߬ 񿻽ԫ ԫ ӿӫᡡ Ӽ ӫ

ӫ޽ѡ 迡 (4, .567).

Կ ӫѽ ѽѺ ӫ ߿ᵿ ߬ ߫ѡ

ѽ. Ž Ѽ ٽ ӫ ѽѺү ӫ ԫ ӿ

߬ ѡ-Ӭ Ѻ ԫӿ (4,.589). ԫ ٽ

ѡټ ԫ, Ѻ ԫٮ 󽴽 ԫ ߫ Ѽ

ӫ. ūԡ, ԫ ԫ ٽ ԫ ǡ ޿ Դ

߽ 󫮡, ǡ Ѽ Ѻ ߴ ߫ѡ ӫ

Ҫڿ ӫ.

߽ , ԫ , ԫ Ѽѵ ӫ 񫽪 ٽ

ӫի ԫ . ӿ߬ ӫ޽ѡ Ѽ ԫ

ѽ - ӫ ѽѺ ӫ ѡ

Ѽѡ ӿ ỿ . ǡ߬ ѽѺ

ӫ 񫽪 ٽ ӫի Ѯҡ - ԫ

.

߽޿ߴ ԫѽ ߬ ѽ Ὣ, ԫ Ѽ

Ѽ. Ҫѡ ߿ ǡ ٽ ԫ ԫ, ԫ

ӫ ѡ Ѽ ߿, Ѽ , ԫ ߽ 󫮡

὿ ҡ "ᵿ ӿӫ

 Ѯҡ". Ѻҽ 1898 . 﫡 ޿ ӿԿ

߫ѡ Ӽ߬ ᮺӫ. ԫ ѽ ӽ ӿ Ҫ

һٮ ߿ ɫ. ѽ 󿺿 ٽ Կ

߫߿ ӫ ӿ߬ ѽ ѽѺ ӫ.

ѡ ߻ի - ߫߿ ٽ ѡ. һ ߫ ԫӫ

Ӽ᡿ ۴ߡ Ѽ, ԫ ԫ Ѽ 󡿼᡿ ᮺ Ѭߴ

ԫ - ߻ߴ ߼߬ ӿ ҽ

Ӽ᡿ ѡ޿ ߿.

߫ٮ աѽ ת-ӿ߬ ݬ߻߿ - ѫ 濼ѡ ԫ

Ѽѡ ԫ ս ߬ . ߿ߴ

ѡ ߫ ԫӫ ߬ ӫ޽ѡԿ ԫ

ѡѪ ᡿ ᡿ᡡ ᬵӡ ,

ӿٽ ԫ ٽ Ѭ. ūԫ ӿѺ ɫ 濼ѡ ӫѽ

Ѽӽѡ ( ԫ ᮡ ү ᬵ

Կ󡫮 Կ) - ߫ߴߴ ѡ

߫߿ ӫ ߬ ѽѺ ӫ. ӫ ԫ,

ӫ ߫ԫ 񡿬 ߬

ɫ޿ Կ, ԫ "񡿬 իӫѼ ߫ԫ, Ѽ

󿡫 Կ ߬ Ѻѡ ӯ" (1, .567) ߫ԫ

ѡ, ߽ "Ѽѵ ᡬ" ի ᬿ-ԫ

Ѽ ԫ. ի ԫ, 濼ѡ ߬ߴ

ӫ ӿ߬ ѽ.

ӿ 1899 . ӽ, ߿ ɫ Կߴ ᮺӫ. ԫ

Ѽѡ ᮺ ٽ ѡ ѽἿ Ѽ ԫ, ԫ

ѽ ߬Ὣ ի . 黫߽ Ѽ

ɫ Ҭ Կ, ԫ ԫ Ѽ ӫԿ ᮺӫ

߬ ߽ "߫Ἷ", ѽ ٽ ޽ (4,.573).

黫߽ Ѽѵ 񿻽, , ԫ

Ӽ᡿ ߼ Ӫ , Ԭӫѡ ᪿӫ὿ Ѽ-

ǡ 櫽ӿ, , ԫ ߬ ӫ - ԫ

ᬫ , ԫӫ ԫ ӫԫ Ԭߴ. Ѻҽ

Ӽ᡿ ǡ ᬽ ᮡٮ , ԫӫ Ӽ᡿ ѡ

Ѯ὿ ᡿ Ѯ ߬ ӫ Ἣ

ƿի - ᪡ ҡ һ ߬

ӿ߬ Կѡ. ū ԫ ὿

ᡡѬ߿ӫ ѡ-Ӭ ߫ Ѯ ԫ ѽ. ԫ

Ὣ, ԫ Ѽ Ԭߴ ӿԴ᡿ , ԫ ,

Ѭ ӫ ѡ. ū ߽ , " ߽, ᡫ

ᬫ, ԫ ӫ, ӫ, Ӵ " (4, .581).

߼Ӵ ޡ Ѯ὿ᵿ ԡѡ, ߡ ӫѼ

ߡ὿. ج߬ ѡ ߫ ԫӫ ǡ Ӽ᡿

ӫ񫽪Ὣ; ӫ ԫ, Ӽ߬ ӫ޽ѡ, ޿

߬ ݬ, ߼ӿߴ ټ ߫

ѽ.

Ѽѵ Ӽ߬ ߫ - Կ ᵿ὿Կ߬ Ӫế

- ߻ 󫺼ѡ ᡿

"Alldeutsche Blaetter":" ǡ, ߫ѡ, ߽Ҫ ߡ᡿Ѽ

Ѽ ᡿ ת ӿ" (4, .583). Ѽ ѡ,

޿ ѽ ߫ Ѭԡٮ Ѯ὿ ٽ ,

޿ߴ һ, ᡡ ǡѮ, իԴ ѡ Ѽѵ

ѽ Ѽ ѡ ӫԿ Ѫ Ἷ

ѽӿ᡿Ѯ.

߽޿ߴ ԫѽ, 󫮡 ߽Ҫ ټ

ԫ ի ҪѮ Ӽ Ӽ᡿, ԫ ὿ ޿

ӫ, . Ѯ ԫӫ, ߬ Ӽ ᬪ

ᪿ὿: ߬ Ӽ ӫ Կ ѽ߬ ԫ

߬ ѽ, իԴ , ѽ

(4, .564).

ӫ ԫ, ᮺ ߽ѡ ѡ 󡿼᡿ ǡ

ԫ. ԫ Ѽ, Դѽ 󫮡 Ѽ

ǡ 櫽ӿ ټ ӫ ӫ Ἣ,

ԫټ ǡ ޫ ѫիԫ. Ѽ

Ӽ߫ ҽ ԫӿ ᡵ . ế ԫ ѽ᡿

ѽ :" Ӵߴ ӿ

񫽪 ߫ Խѡ...ԫ իԿ ߻

ѡ . ᬫ ٽ Ԭ Ѯ

񿻽Կ, ߽ ѽ ӿѽ ѡ ӫ,

󫺡ڿ Ѫ Ἷ ǡѮ, Ѫ ӫ Ἣ."(4, .587)

Ѯ὿ ߫ӡ, ߬ ѽ ӫ

ѽ ѽ 󫮡, ӿѡ Կ "᡿ " - ۴ѡ

޿ ᡿ Ὧ. Ӽ߬ ѽ ᡿Ὣ

޿ټ ѡ Ҫ , Ѽѵ ҽ

߫ᡴ 񿼫 ԫ, ԫ Ӽ᡿ ӿ , Ὤ Կ

ӫ ޿ѽټ Ѯ󿴼. ᮺ ԫ Ѽ ᮡ

߫Ѯ Կ Ѭԫ ѡ Ӽ߬ ߫, ԫ

᡿὿ ӫ ӫ 󫮡 ת ӿ. ԫ

Ӵ ٽ ߫ ᡿Ѽ "Ӽ߬ " ӿ Կ

󫮡 ԫӫ ӫ.

ӫ ү Ӵ ԡѡ ǡѮ, Ӽ߬

ѽ ߫Ὣ ߿ ԫ ѡ.

Ѽѵ Կ ӻѽ ѽ ѡѡ ߫ Ѽѡ ԫ

߼Ӭ. Դ ѽѺٮ ᡵ ԫ ӫԿ

ǡ, ᡵ ɫ߿ ԫ ӫ, ӿӿԡټ Կ

Ὣ ӫѮ߬ ѡ. ٽ ߼Ӭ "ԫٮ

ӫ ԫ Ѯ ߬ ެ" ѻ ޽

ӫ޽ (1). ūԿ, ԫ 󫻽ѡ ѡ

ᮺ 鿽ѽ II " ѡ" - Կ߬ ԫ.

ᡫ, ԫү Ӽ᡿ Կ ӿ 󡿼᡿, ٽ

ӵ.

XIX Ѭ ߼߬ ӿ Կ Ҭ ǡ,

ᡵ , Կ, ɫ߿. ԫ ߽ ӫѡ Ӽ߬

ӫ޽ѡ ӿӫ ߫ ټ ѡ὿ᡡټ

ټ Ἷ. XX Ѭ ѡ Ѻ ѡ.

ӫѼ 󽿴 Ӽ᡿ ӫү Կ ߻

񿻽Կ ӵ. ӵ 󽴽 ѡԿ Ѯ ӫ޽ѡ,

ѽ߬իѡ ѡ ڿ. ѽ߬ ի ի񿽫

һ; Ӽ ٽ ի ᡿ Ҫѡ; ӫ޽ѡ

ᬫ . Կ իߴ Կٮ ԫٮ ߻

- ҽ ҽ Ἷ, ԫٮ ѽѡ Ѯ .

ѡٮ ߻Ѭ, ԫӫ ӵ 󽴽 ѡ, ٽ

ѫ߬ ѡ Ѫ Ѻ ߬Ѽ,

ԡԿ, ԡ ώ. ӵ ի ٬ Կѡԫ -

Ǻ, ӫ ӿ. Ҭ իߴ ի ӡ -

ѽ. ӫ ԫ, Ӽ᡿ ٽ ᪡ ԫ, ԫ ǡ ѽ

ԫ ӵ ӿԫӿ, ԫ Ӽ᡿,

Կ ѽѡѡ ǡ, Կ.

ẫ᡿ ǡ ӫ ѽ ޿ ѡ Ӽ᡿,

߽ 󫮡 Ӽ᡿ ԫ ߴ ӫ. ԫ

߼߽ ӵ, ӿ ߫үѮ ѻԫ Ӽ, Դ

߬ ߿ ӫѮ߬ 󫮡 ߬.

ᬫѵ, ߽ 󫮡 Ҭ ӵ ի ᪡ Ѽ߬

ҡᵿ, ɫ߿ ߫Ἷ. Ѯ

߻ѬԿ ӵ ߽Ҫ Ӽ Ѽѵ һѡ

.

ǡ Ѽ ԫ ѽ . ү , ٽ

ῡ߫ Ѽ߬ ӫ ߻ѬԿ ԫ

ᡡѬ߿ , ԫ ٽ ӿԫ Ѽ ӫ 󫮡

Ҭ ߬ ǡ .. ӫ ԫ, ǡ

Ѽ Ҭѻ ߫ , ԫٮ ӵ. , ,

ǡ ѡ ү ߫Ἷ ᮫

߿߬ ὿. ԫ, ԫ, , ԫ ǡ ٽ

߿ ߽ѡ ӵ, ԫ Ѽ Ӽ᡿, ӫԿ,

ٽ ῡ߫ Ҭѻѡ ӵ, ӿ 񡫼 ߽: ӵ

񫽪 ٽ ߴ Ӽ᡿.

ԫ ѽ, Ӽ߬ ᮺ ߫ "Ὣ ټ ".

ġ Ҫ߬ ԡѡ ҽ Ἷ , Ѽ ټ,

ߡ ߫.

߫Կ߬ Կ ᮺ ߫ԡү ҽ,

߽ ԫ Ҫ ٽ Ѭ ڿ.

ߡ ῼѮ ᮺ ߫ ԫ Ӽ᡿,

ᮺ Ѽѵ ӫ޽ѡԿ ٽ ӡ Ӽ߬

Կ ԫ Ѽѡ. ߽ ߬ ԫӫ Կ߬

ԫ ѡ, ԫ ߫-ݬ߬,

ԡ ѻѡ Կ߬ - "Ѽѵ ᡬ" (4,.569). ӵ,

Խ ὴ, Ӽ᡿ ٽ Կ߬

߫. ūԫ 1880 ҽ ӫ ߫

߼Ӭ Ի ѡү ߿ Ѽѵ ѡὫ

⫽Ѽ.

߿ ⫽ ߬ѽ ӡ. 񡫮

ԫӫ, 󽿴Ѽ Ѽ ѵ Ӽ ߽ ӫ߽

ӫӼ߬ ӫѡ ӫ (ԫ Ὣ Ѻᮡ ᪡ټ

ԫӫ ߽). ԫӫ, ѵ Դ ٽ

ᬽѡ ӡᵿ ѵ Ӽ,

ѵ ӫ Ӽ᡿. ᬿ ẫ, ѡ ߿ ⫽

ӫ Ѽѵ ӫ޽ѡ ӵ. ӵ Կ ᡿

Կ իԡ.

ԫ Ѽѡ Ѽѵ ỿ ߻ѽ ߬ӫԿӫ

߼߬ ӿ, ԫ ӫԿ󡿬 ߡ ߫

Ӽ᡿Ѯ 󽿴ѽ ѵ 󡿬 ٽ. ӫ ԫ, ҽ

Ѵߴ Ӽ᡿ ߡ ѡ ǡ

ᡵ Ѽ ټ ὿ Ѯ Ӽ᡿, ǡ

ᡵѮ.

Ӽ᡿ ߡ ѡԫ ᬪ ߫ ӵ.

1881 ߫὿ ԫ߬ .

᡿ᵿ ٽ ӿ Ӫ ӵ ݬ߬ ߿Կ

ӫ. ѡ ߫᡿ ԫ ᡿ᵿ 񫽴 Ӽ᡿ Ѽ

ӵ ӫѮ߬ 󡴽 4,5% ӫ 80 .

ӫ. 90- , Ӵ ѽѺӫ ӫѽ ӵ,

񫽴 Ѽѵ ỿ - 1898 . Ӽ᡿ ߴ

ԫ ԫ (12,1%) Ѫ ǡ (10,9%). ᡵ

߫ᡴ ԫ ү ѡ 񫽴 ߫ 44,9%.

1912 . Ӽ᡿ ߴ ԫӫ ԫ (20%) ߽ ᡵ (57%)

(1, .12).

߽ 󿺿ԫ ᮺ ӵ Ѽߴ Ѽѵ .

ү ԫ ٽ ҪѮ Ӽ һ Һ, ޿

һ ѵ ѽ. ӵ ѽ

޿ Ҫѡ Ѯ Ӽ, ٽ ١Ҫѡ

Ѽѵ ᡬӫ. Ѻҽ ݬ߬

ѡ ӵ Ὣ ѽ Ѽѡ. ӵ Ԭߴ ᬿ

߫ ᡿ᵿ, Ѽѵ ᡬ, ߬ԫ-Ѻѽ, Ѻѡ

ᡬ.

᡿Ѽ Ҫѡ Ӽ᡿ Ѽ

Ѽ ӿѡ ᬫ ѬԿٮ ԫ ӫѡ ỿ,

ӫѽ ѽѺ ӫ. 1898 . Ѽѵ ѽ ߴ

ԫѡ ߬ ӫѽ

ӵ ߿ ӫѽ ǡԫ߬ ѽѺ ӫ.

ӫѽ ӫ ԫ ӫѮ߬, ӿ߬ ᡿.

"Ѽѵ ᡬ" ٽ ѡ ߽ ӫѽ, ԫ ٽ

ԫ ټ Ӽ᡿, ߬ ټ ӵ.

ԡԿ, ѵ ạ Կӫ ѽѡٮ ӫѡ ӿٽ

߽ 񫻫ѡ Ἷ ߿Ἷ. ԫ ٽ ޿ ߻

Ӽ᡿ Ѽ ԫ XIX Ѭ.

һἿ ߫ ԫӫ ѵ ѽ ᮺ ѡ ԫ

ӫү ᵿү Կ, ӫү ҽ Ἷ

ԡѡ Ӽ. ӿ Կѽ ҽ Ἷ ߬ ҽӡ

ӿ߬ Ӵ Ѻ὿ Ӽ߬ ѽѡ.

ӫ ԫ, - Ѫ ҽ Ἷ ӿѽ ѵү Ӽ ٮ

һ - ٽ ѡ Ѯ޿ ѡ ߬, ߬ ѡ,

߫ѽ ᡴ һ 񫽪Ѯ Խ

ѡ. ūԫ, ӵ 1908 . ӫ޽ 񫡫ߡ

᡿ Կ " ӫ" (.. ӫ) Ӽ᡿ ԫ

ӫѽ ߿Ѯ޿ ޫ. ūԿ ѵ ѽ

߿ٮ ѡ ԫӫ ǡ. ǡ

ѫ᡿ᵿ , ߫Ҫѡ ԫ. ҽ ٽ ߡ

"ᵿٮ ᡬ ӵ" ԿѼ ߬ ỿ

Ҭ ӿ߬ ᡫ ӡ ѽ. ǡ ߡ

Կ ӫٮ ӫ -  ٽ ѡ

߿ ӫѡ ݬ߬ Ӽ ǡԫ,

᡿ ٽ ạѡ ټ ߻Ѭԫӫ ѵ Ἣѡ. ӫ ԫ,

߿ ߫Ἷ, ӫѡ

ӿᵿ ߫Ҫѡ ԫ Ѫ ߿߬ ὿.

Ὣ, , Կ Ѽ, ٽ Ӵ. ѵ

Ҭ ߫᡿ , ߿ һӫ ԫӫ

Ӽ߬ ӿѡᵿ. ԫ ٽ Խ ѵ ѡ,

Ѽ ӫ޿ ԫ Ӽ᡿. Ѫ , ԫ ٽ III

ѵ ӻ, ҽ - ռ -, 꺺-, ǽ

ɿ- ߬ ѡ ӽ߬ ѡ Ѽ.

Ӽ ѡ ߿ , ԫӿ

ٽ ѡ ߫. ԫ Ὣ 鿽ѽ II Ӫ: "

󫽯 ߫ѡ "ټ ӬἿ" ӿ 﫡, 񡫮

ӼѮ Կ ߬ѽ ѡټ Ӽ᡿ .. "Ѽѵ

Ἷ". ġ Ἣԡ ߽ -Ѽѵ. ԫ ѡ 󫽯"

(1,.22). ūԿ Ѽ ὿ Ѵѽ ߿ ,

Ѫ Ӽ. ٽ ӫѡ ѡ ѡ, Ԭٽ ѡ-

ѡ Ѽѵ ѽ. ү ӽ ٺ὿

ӿ߬ ӫἼ Ѽѡ Կ Ԭ ѡ὿ᵿ

һѡ .

Կ ѡ ٽ Ѽ, Ѽ , ԫ

ѡ ߬ӫ ὿ Ӫ ӫ ѽ὿

ү Կ, ԫ һ ԫ ߽ѡ

ѡ Կ. ӵ ٽ ԫӿ ߽ һ ӫ

⫽Ѽ, ԫٮ ᡴ ߻Ѭԫ ѵ Ӽ.

Ӵ ҬѻѡѼ ߿Կ ѵ Ӽ Ѽ,

߿ᵿ ߬ . 1908 . ѽ ԫ Կ

߿ ѿ. Ѭԫߴ ߬ , ѡ

ӫ߫ ޽ ߬ . Ҵ Ѽ ӿᵿ ,

Ӭ ӿ ݡ ѡ ԫԿ . 佴

ӡᵿ ٽ ߫ ӫ Ҽ - 90 . ӫ. ѡ

ӡҽ ԫѡ Ѫ ӼἿ ǡ Ӽ᡿,

ԫ 񿻽Կ߬ ѽѮ ѿ .

ǡ߬ ὿ ߫ѡү ү ӫҬ.

Ѽ, ߫ ߡ ߬ 󽿴 , ޽

ӫ὿ ӵ ߬ Ѯ Ѯ Ѯү ,

߽Ѽ Ѭԫ᡿ Ѽѵ ݬѼ. Ѻҽ Ѽѵ

󽿴 󫺫Ὣ.

ټ Ѯѡټ Ѽѵ ݬ߻߿ ٽ ӫѽ

ѽѺ ӫ. ӡ, ԫ ߿ ѫ᡿Ѽ Ӽ߬

ỿ ӫѽ ԫ߬ ѽѺ ӫ 1888 . ٽ

ѡ ӿ 󡫼 ߫Ѯ ߬ 񿻽Կ߬ (1, .171).

ᬫ ӫ ٽ Ὣ ݬ߻߿. ū߽ ᡿

ӫѽ ԫ߬ ѽѺ ӫ ٽ ߬ ӫѬԫ

ӫ񫽪ѡ ӫѽ. ǡ, Ѯ ٽ ߽ѡ ߼߬

ӿ, ὿ ӫ񫽪 ӫ Ѫ .

ѽ Ҫ ٽ ӫ ,ԫ ԫ ү

Ǻ ᮫Ἷ, ѽѡټ Ἷ Ἷ.

70- ѵ ὿ (ӡԫ)

ѽ, Ӭ὿, ԫ ӿ ޿ߴ ԫ

Ѯ, ԡ ѽѡ 󽿴Ѽ ӿ߬ ӫ߬

"ᡫߴ ӫԿټ" (1, .168). Ѽѡ Ӭ

Ҭѻ Ὣ Ѽѵ "ӫѽѮ ӿ".

Ӽ߬ ѡ ӵ ᡿ ѽ ԫ.ӫ

Ҫ һ ӿ, ӿѬѽ Ӽ᡿, ӬἿ

ݵ ǡ Ѯ. ᬫ, ԫ ٽ

󿼫 ԫ ӿ ὿ ѽѺ ӫ, ߫񿡴Ѯ ү Ǻ

(1, .193).

߬ ѽѺ ӫ ѽ ӿ ի ᪡

ӡ ӿ - ǽѻ, ҽ, ӫի ƿ

, Ԭ ߽ , ի . ᡿

ҡԫ Ѻ ԫ 񻫽Ὣ ӫԿ , ԫ

߬ ӫ 񫽪 ٽ ӫԫ ߽ ߬

ѽѺӫ ԫ - ޽ 񿫺 ԫӪѡ

Ѽѵ ỿ ߬ ߬ ߫ - ߫Ἷ

߿߬ ὿, Ѽ Ѽ ӫ ѽѺӫ Ԭ

߬ ᡿. Ѽѡ ߽Ҫ ѽ ݬ߬

ѡ ӵ. ߽ ߿ ٽ ߬ѽ

Ѽ. ѵ ạ Կ 15,5 . . 1 - Ѭ ߫ү

ѡ ӫѽ ѽѺ ӫ ԫӿ. Ѽ ὿

ݬ߻ᵿ 20 . ԫӫ ѽѺ ӫ, Ѽ

὿ ᡿ᵿ ѽѡ ӫ, ӫ

ݽѬӫᡵ, ӻ . ӫ ԫ, 󽴽

ᵿ ƿ ӫ ԫ

Ѫ ߿߬ ὿. ӫ 񫽪 ٽ 񽿡 2467

. Ҽ, Ѽ Ӽ᡿Ѯ Ӵ Ҽ 550 . .

ӵ ᬪ ߻ Ӽ߬ ߿ - "Ѽѵ ᡬ"

ѽѡٮ ӫѡ ի ạ.

ӫѽ ԫ ӫ ߬

ӿ὿Կ߬ Ӫ, ,Ѫ , ǡ. Ѽ

ӫ ӫ ὿ ᡿ ӫ ٽ

߫Ӵѡ ѻѫ񫽿ټ Դ.

, ԫӫ ԫҽߴ "Ѽѵ ᡬ"

ӫѽ ԫ ӫ, ᬽ Ԭ

߿ӫ᡿ Ѯ ӫ . Ἣ Ӽ᡿ 󴺿

ԫټ ݬ߬ ӫԫ Ὣ ӫ߬

ỿὫ, ԫ ١ҪὫ 濼ѡ ߬ Ѫ. ԫ ٽ

߫Ӵѡ ѻѫ񫽿ټ Կ߬ Դ; ԫ ߬,

ԫ ߬ ( Ѽ ᡵҺ߬) ѽ Կ

Կӫ ᬵ ߬ ѽѺ ӫ 﫡߬ Ӫ.

߬ Ӽ ӫѽ ԫ ӫ ѽ

Ὣ Ԭẫ "Ѽѵ ᡬ" ѡ ԫ

ӫ, ԫ 濼ѡ, , Կ ѽ. ѼὫ ѻѡ ᬫ

Ѻ ᬵ ٽ 󿡫ԫ ѡ ᮺ 鿽ѽ II,

ԫٮ 󫿼 ӫ ѡ ԫ

߬ ӫ. Ѽѵ ѽѡ ӫѽ ԫ

ӫ ὿ "߫ѡټ ѽ ӿԿѼ".

ӫ ԫ, 񫽪 ٽ ӫի ӿԫӿ, ѽѡټ

Ἷ, ӫѡټ ӫ ӫ. ԡ Ѯտ

߫ѡ ߻ ὿ ߿ѡ ѡ Կ ߽

ӫ ѽѺ ӫ. ѼὫ ѻѡ

߬ ѡἿ. Ѻҽ 󫺼 ߫ ԫӫ

᡿ӫ᡿, ӫѡ ԫѽ , ӫ

ӫ Դҽ 2-3 񻫽Ѽ ӫ.

"Ѽѵ ᡬ" Ὣ ߿ ӫ ߬ү ӫ

Ἣԫѽ. ԫ, Ӽ߬ ѽ ӿ޽ Կ

һ ɫ߿ ǡ Ѽ ᬽѡ ߫ѡ . ߫ѡ

ɫ߿Ѯ ӿὫ Ԭѡ ᡿ ᡫ,

ӡ Կ ԫӫ ѫὫ ߬ 󽿴. ޿

һ ٽ ѽ . "Ѽѵ ᡬ" һ

ӫѡ ᬽѽ, Ἣ ᪡ Ԭ

, Ѽ ټ, ѼἿ ӿߴ ӿӿ ӿ߬ 󽿴

߫Ἷ.

Ѻҽ ӿ߬ ѽ Ὣ Կ ѽ

߽ ӫ ԫ ӫ. ߽, "Ѽѵ ᡬ" ԫ

ѽ Ӵ ῡ߫ᡡ ӫѽ, ԫ ߽

ᬽѡ ӫߡ ߫ѡ ӫ ӫ ޽ ᮡ ѡ.

ӫ 󫮡 ӫ 󽴽 ѻ ӫѡ,

߫ѡ Ѫ ߫ Ԭ, ԫ ߿ ޿ ѡ ѵ

߬ ߫Ἷ , ޿ 󫺼Կ ӫ

ߴ ӫ .

" ѡ" ѬԿ ߻᡿ ݬ߬ ԫ

ѡ . ߫ѡ ѬԿټ ٽ ӫ

ѽѺ ӫ 󴺿. ..ѡ , ԫ " ūӫ ѽӫ

ߴ ӫټ, ѡټ, ѼԿ߬, ҽӡټ, 󿽿ԫ߬

ӿԿѼ; ѽ ỿ὿Կ߬ Կ...Կ ӫ

ѡ Ѯ". Կ Կ

.

XX Ѭ ޿ ߻ի ѡ Ѽ

󽿴 ӿԫӿ, իڿ ߬ү "ūߡү ӿ". 竡

ӿ߬ ߫ ٽ ӿ ӫѮ޿ ᮫ - Ѯ Ѭ

f. ǡ߬ ᡿὿ ѡүڿ ޡѮ

ԫ . ӫ ԫ, ǡ "ѡ" ҫӫ ҡ

ԫټ ӫ ݮѼ Ӵ ԫ, 󬽯 ⫡-, ԫ

߻ ѡ .

ӿѬ ᬪ Ӽ᡿, ߡ󡫼 - Ѯ ߿

ѪѮ Ѻ ߬Ѽ. ٽ ߡ ѽѡ Ѫ

ӫѮ߬ ԫἿ 󽿴, ԫ Ӽ߬ ݬ߻߿

ٺ ү , ԫ Ҫ ߡ὿

ԫ Ǻ, ү , ǡ ɫ߿.

1885 1893 . Ӽ߬ ݬ߻ ѽߴ 16,5 .

33,25 . ӫ. ӫ ԫ, ߫ Ѽѵ

߿ӫ, 1897 . Ӽ᡿ "ѡ" ߬ ,

Ѽ ߻᡿ ӫѬԫ ҫӫ ҡ. ԫ ٽ

ԫ ߽ Ӽ߬ ݬ߬ ݬ߻߿. ԫ Ӽ᡿

߫᡿ ݬ߻ᵿ ѽ ѽѺ

ӫ ߬ ӡ ߬ ӫ󿡵, ԫ Ѻҽ

὿ Կ߬ ӫѼ Ӽ᡿. ѽѺӫ ᡵ

󽴽 Կ߬ ѡټ Ἷ, ӿ ӫ 󴺿 Ѭ Ѽ

὿ Կ߬ Ѻᡡټ.

Ӽ߬ ỿ ὿ ӫԿѮ ߫ ԫӫ ߬

ѡԫ ߻ӡ ᮫ - ԡԿ, Ѭ

ӫի񿽿 ԫ ߼ѡ ѽ, ԫ Ὣ

߬, Ѽѵ ߬ 󽿴. ѽ ߫ѡ Ӭ

ݬ߬ 񫻽Ѭ ӿ὿Կ߬ ӫԿ,

ῡ߫ᡡ Կ߬ ῡ߫ᡡ

߫ѡ ѽԡ ᪿ᡿ Կ߬

߫ ѽ.

髺ѡ Ὣ ԫ ạ Դ Ѫ

ӫѮ߬ Ἷ ᡫ , ү , ߫ һѡѼ

ӫѮ߬ ӿ὿Կ߬ү Կ, ӿ

Կ߬ ݬ߻߿ ӿԫӿ. ԫ ١Ҫ

ӡ үߴ ӫ޽ѡ ӿ὿Կ߬ տڡ

һ ߫ ټ ٬Ἷ . ߫ѡ Ӭ

ӿӫ Կ ӫԿ ӿ ӫᵿ ѮѮ

ӿ὿Կ߬ Ӫ - Ӽ᡿ ѮѮ

- ǡ. Ӽ߬ ӫ޽ѡ, ߻ Ԭ ١

ԫ , ӿ Ԭ ѡ

߻ѬԿѮ޿ ӿԫӿ , 񫽴 ԫ իߴ

ǡ. ạ Կ߬ ݬ߬ , Ѫѽ᡿

һ ӿ Կ Ѯ޿ , ڿ᡿ ѡ

߿ , ᬫѵ, 񿫺 󫮡 ߻߫ ѡ Կ ԫ.

ūԬ ӫߡ ѡ ߻ӫ ߴ ѬԿ

Ѯ ѻӿԿ ߫ ԫӫ ߿ ᵿ

Ӫế ԫ , ԫ 󽿴

Կ Ѯ .

f

1. ..濽 "ج߻߿ Ӽ߬ ӿ὿ Ѽ ԫ

ҡ ӫ 󫮡"

2. ӽ ӫ "ǡ-Ӽ߬ ӫѼ"

3. .. "櫺᡿ ߻ ӿ߬ ӿ"

4. ..὿߬ " ԫӿ ѡ ѡ Ѫҡӫ

ԡѡ"

5. .ѽ "ƫ-ӫ޽ѡٮ Ѽ Ӽ᡿"

6. "ԫӿ ӫ 󫮡"

7. ..ᡫ߬ "ԫ "



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