:


:

1.

2.

3. :

3.1. ()

3.2. ()

3.3. ( )

3.4. ( )

4.


70 % (, , ; , , , ), 㳿 . . , , .

, (, ) . ó . 䳿 ( ), .

³

䳿 - ()
6.57.0 , . , .
7 .
12 .
12 7.07.5 -.

: , , , , -.

7.07.5 . - .

ʳ , , , , -.

. . - 2, 2, 4. .

, .

. : - ( ); (, ) (98 %) ; - ( ).

, - (35 %), (3035 %), (6070 %). , (120 100 3), 䑺 , . - , , ( - 㳿).

( 140 ) . ( ); ( ); - . .

( 120 ) . ; ; ; . , , . 쳿 .

:

, (, ).

, . , . .


3.

3.1 ( )

1. , , -6-:

HO OH

CH2OH CH2OP=O

H H H H H H

OH OH H OH OH OH H OH

H OH H OH

ࠠ 6

2. -6- 䳺 -1-:

HO OH

CH2OP=O CH2OH

H H H H H H

ࠠ OH

OH OH H OH OH OH H OP=O

H OH H OH OH

6򠠠 1

3. -1- () - 㳿 , --.

CH2OH CH2OH OH O

H H H H H H P

OH Ԡ 427 O

OH OH H OP=O OH OH H OP=O

H OH OH H OH OH

1򠠠 Ԗ

4. ( ), - - ( 1,4) ( 1,6) , - :

CH2OH OH

H H H P Π

O (6H10O5)n

OH OH H OP=O (C6H10O5)n+1

H OH OH

Ԗࠠ

:

( 2- ); ( -6- - ; ). 3040 . . .

3.2 .

, , , . г . , , (120 /1003) . ( ). : , ; .

, -1-:


1.

CH2OH

H H H

(C6H10O5)n H3PO4; (C6H10O5)n-1 OH

ࠠ OH OH H OР H OH OH

1

2. -6-:

Π ͠

CH2OH CH2O=Π

H H H H H H

OH ࠠ

OH OH H OP=O OH OH H O

H OH OH H OH

1򠠠 -6-

3. -6- :

Π ͠

CH2O=Π CH2O͠

H H H H H H

OH ࠠ + 34

OH OH H OP=O OH OH H O͠

H OH OH 2Π H OH

6򠠠

:

: . , , . ( , ).

ϳ . () ( ).

䳺 .

 

3.3 ()

䳿 .

ϳ , , - :


HO OH

CH2OH CH2OP=O

H H H H H H

OH OH H OH ࠠ OH OH H OH

H OH H OH

ࠠ 6򠠠

HO OH

CH2OP=O Π ͠

H H H O=POCH2 OH

ࠠ H HO

OH OH H OH

H OH H OH H CH2OH

6򠠠 6򠠠

O

HOPOH HO OH

OCH2 OH O=POCH2 OH

ࠠ H HO

H H OH HO OH

OH H CH2H H OH H CH2OP=O

6򠠠 1,6

O

HOPOH OH

OCH2 OH CH2OP=O OH

ࠠ C=O OH + CH2OP=O

H H OH HO OH CH2OH CH=O OH

OH H CH2ΖP=O CH2OH

1,6򠠠

OH OH

CH2OP=O CH2OP=O

CH=O OH ࠠ CHOH OH

CH2OH C=O

H

򠠠

:

: , . - .

.

1. . -3 ( +):


CH=O HCOH =Π

CHOH SF SF

CH2OP=O + HSF CHOH + ͠ CHOH

HO OH CH2OP=O CH2OP=O

HO OH HO OH

C=O C=O OH OOH

SF OP=O CHOH

CHOH + H3PO4 OH CH2OP=O

CH2OP=O HSF CHOH OH HO OH

HO OH CH2OP=O

OH

1,3- () 3-

OOH COOH OH

CHOH ࠠ CHOP=O

CH2OP=O CH2OH OH

HO OH

3 ࠠ 2

2. :

COOH OH COOH OH COOH

CHOP=O (2) COP=O C=O

CH2OH OH CH2 OH CH3

2ʠ 2 () ʠ

COOH ͠

C=O ͠ + ͖

CH3 3 ʠ

:

67 % 㳿 2 . ʳ - ( ) - ( ). , , , - .

93 % 㳿 , , . ( ) 㳿. ʳ- . - 䳿 .

3.4

ϳ - . 7 % 㳿 :

CO2

COOH + 2

CHOH + ͠ =Π HS 3=Π

CH3 ࠠ 3 ࠠ SKoA

. 䳺 - - . :

C=O O=CCOOH C=O

SKoA + CH2 SKoA HOH HSKoA

CH3 COOH CH2 ࠠ

HO CCOOH

CH2

COOH

- ࠠ

COOH COOH COOH

CH2 CH2 CH2

HOCCOOH H2O CCOOH +HOH CHCOOH

CH2 CH HOCH -

COOH COOH COOH

ࠠ -ࠠ

CO2 CO2

COOH COOH COOH

CH2 CH2 ++ ͠ CH2

CHCOOH CH2 +SF CO2 CH2

C=O C=O 򖠠 C=O

COOH COOH ࠠ SKoA

COOH OOH COOH

CH2 CH CH2

Ԡ Ԡ CH2 + CH HOH CHOH +

COOH COOH COOH

ࠠ ࠠ ࠠ

OOH

CH2

C=O

COOH

-

:

䳿 6 ( - ); {3 , 1, 1}=12 .

- , 182=36 , - 38 .

38- 50 % 㳿 () 50 % .


1. .

2. . Գ .

3. (). ճ , .

4. (). ճ , .

5. (). ճ , , .

6. . ճ , , .




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